The main goals of the current Law are:. The legislation of Kyrgyz Republic in the field of protection of citizens against harmful effects of tobacco is based on the Constitution of Kyrgyz Republic and comprises the current Law and other normative-legal acts of Kyrgyz Republic along with the International Treaties, ratified by Kyrgyz Republic. Meanwhile, should the international treaties and conventions envisage different from the current Law regulations, the international obligations of Kyrgyz Republic are superior. The Government of the Kyrgyz Republic with the purpose of tobacco consumption reduction and public health strengthening shall:.
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- A Revolutionary Attack on Tobacco: Bolshevik Antismoking Campaigns in the 1920s
- London Review of Books
- We apologize for the inconvenience...
- Unit of Production Method Definition
- Kronstadt Izvestia
- All Kronstadt Izvestia
- «Ukrainian Makhorka» - Organic Tobacco Seeds
- The Background: Private Trade before the NEP
- Economic unit
A Revolutionary Attack on Tobacco: Bolshevik Antismoking Campaigns in the 1920sVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: SYSTEM OF UNITS
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Each time you use the LRB Website you signify your acceptance of these terms and conditions. If you do not agree, or are not comfortable with any part of this document, your only remedy is not to use the LRB Website. When a long honest novel comes out of Russia today comparisons with Tolstoy are routine — I have made them myself — but in this case it seems worth asking rather more rigorously than usual what they really mean. In the first place, no novel that merely resembled War and Peace could be anything like it, or indeed any good.
Tolstoy himself said that War and Peace was not a novel, nor a piece of history, but something unique which he felt he could make, and which the situation called for. But apart from that, all long socialist realist novels coming from Russia since the Revolution, including those of Alexei Tolstoy, have in fact taken War and Peace , consciously or unconsciously, as a native model.
That is one reason why most of them are so bad. What works for a genius will not do so for those who try to avail themselves of what seems his formula. You cannot transpose its method into a wholly different social ethos and scene. The instinctive confidence his characters feel in themselves comes from the fact that Tolstoy always starts on the inside of life, always with what it feels like to be oneself. From this extreme natural awareness, which first sprang into words in Childhood, Boyhood and Youth , comes the whole spacious breadth of the external world in War and Peace.
This itself makes a disturbing, an explosive mixture. It is not his fault. Though individuals remain basically the same, their true innerness has no chance to be revealed in a work devoted to the miseries and splendours of Russian wartime society. External pressures are too great. These persons have neither the time nor the inclination to be conscious of themselves, and they offer decidedly meagre fare to the novelist who wishes to establish his characters in a solid perspective of familiarity.
So a gap yawns in the centre of Life and Fate. And yet was it ever seen as being so? Probably not. Grossman replaces it with a pattern of arbitrary fates — who was killed where, who starved, drowned, was shot, gassed, or relapsed into anonymous existence. We follow to Auschwitz Sophia Levinton, a Jewish doctor, a major in the Medical Corps, captured at Stalingrad, because she happens to be a friend of Yevgenia Shaposhnikova.
By the same paradox that operates in Dr Zhivago , the author, in the process of operating the random arbitrariness of coincidence and destiny, puts himself too much to the fore and becomes an all-powerful instrument of fate rather than an artist. Tolstoy is all-powerful too, but, as he himself emphasised, the novelist must by some mysterious divination of art know what is, as it were, the true fate of each character, instead of merely allotting them a part.
Grossman in fact bows to this technique, using it in a way that is quite exceptionally powerful and moving. In some ways Grossman is much more like Isaac Babel, on a huge scale. So much for the stock claim in terms of construction, technique, effect. But what about the message of War and Peace , its celebration of Russian life, the drive of its propaganda? Tolstoy never pretended that he was writing about the whole people of Russia. What interested him was his own class, and the part it had played during the French invasion and the glorious year of Yet with his massive and almost invisible diplomacy Tolstoy manages to associate all that was best and simplest in Russia with that class — which was under strong attack at the time he was writing War and Peace — and with its achievement.
Such a claim is never uncommon among those at the top of the tree in any country, but Tolstoy makes it with great certainty and subtlety. So although the literary method is quite different, inevitably different, there is an almost exact subterranean correspondence between what Grossman wishes to say and what Tolstoy wished to say.
So compelling is the machine that it not only dehumanises the naturally good and makes them do evil acts, but paralyses those who have created it and are a part of it. Under its influence Napoleon has no choice but to march on Russia, and further into Russia.
This business about the machine, and the human goodness it corrupts and nullifies, is of course sufficiently old hat, and it takes a creative writer of the first power, like Tolstoy, to bring home to us what it means, and to move us deeply with the spectacle.
It says much for Grossman that he can do this too, using the same basic ideas, and conveying them with the same transforming passion of art. But though his position is essentially Tolstoyan, it is more complex than that of Tolstoy in War and Peace.
This tacit but significant interchangeability — of the one country and the other — would itself be abhorrent to the orthodox Soviet line, even if there were no other offences in the novel. Its time sequence is that of the siege and relief of Stalingrad, though there are frequent references back and forth, particularly to , the year of the purges.
A number of scenes take place on the German side, in German camps, on the trains to Auschwitz and Dachau, and in the dug-outs and headquarters of the German Sixth Army at Stalingrad: and there is no great difference in tone between the reflections and conversations on both sides.
The genius of both novelists appears in the compelling and spontaneous way they juxtapose the human and the non-human in scenes of swift unspoken analysis. He is furious with Dolokhov for expressing total cynicism on the point, even though he admits the prisoners will probably die anyway, of cold and hunger.
An almost exactly similar scene occurs after Stalingrad between two Russian officers, one of whom has just casually kicked a wounded German by the roadside. The fury of the other, and their quarrel, illustrates with silent irony the difference between spontaneous human goodness and the equally spontaneous need to maintain appearances.
How we behave fuses nationality with humanity in a way essentially absurd, but also saving. The machine, whether Soviet, German or English, has no time for such incongruities. In the face of the machine, even certain kinds of smallness and selfishness become allies of human dignity. When Field-Marshal Paulus surrenders at Stalingrad his captors wait curiously for him to utter some appropriate sentiment — appropriate, that is, to one machine that has been put out of action by another.
What went wrong? Where was the decisive error? Instead he says shyly: Sagen sie mir, bitte, was ist Makhorka? A heavy smoker, he is enquiring about Russian tobacco. All he can think of is will he be able to get something to smoke and eat, be given some warm place to sleep.
He has been reduced to just the same small preoccupations and anxieties as the ordinary soldier. As a popular wartime newsman, he was second only to Ehrenburg. In a way, he was in the position of Pierre at Borodino, whom Tolstoy uses as an innocent observer, whose eye makes the routine horrors of battle strange, and thus even more terrible.
Tolstoy himself had been in the same kind of dangerous and yet privileged position at Sevastopol. Many of the scenes of the Stalingrad fighting in Life and Fate are as heroically stylised as those in any of the innumerable Russian novels about the war years.
It looks as if Grossman had decided to include much of the same standard material that he had already used in For a Just Cause , the epic about Stalingrad which he had begun in , and which had been published in Novy Mir after the war.
It seems likely that Grossman hoped that the change of climate would make Life and Fate acceptable, which is why he made much of the Stalingrad material as conventional as For a Just Cause. If so, he was soon undeceived. Suslov, the leading party ideologue, himself wrote to Grossman that the novel could not possibly be published for the next two hundred years, a pronouncement which, among other things, carries echoes of the Fifty Year Rule and the Thousand Year Reich.
State machines have an Alice in Wonderland attitude about their own longevity. Grossman was isolated, not arrested. He continued to write, and the short novel, Everything Flows , which he began in , a meditation on the camps, the kulaks, and the fate of Russia generally, was published in the West in By then, Grossman had been dead for nearly ten years, living at the end alone and in poverty, and uncertain whether his great book had survived and would ever come out. As Robert Chandler observes, the strength of Grossman is that of an insider, who had participated closely in Soviet society and was as familiar with its old-boy network as Tolstoy had been with the Tsarist establishment.
Like many Russian Jews, he had been particularly loyal to the regime throughout the war and the purges, and unlike Pasternak and the Mandelstams, he had spoken its language and known it from within. He strikes one, ironically, as a native member of the Nomenklatura, just as Tolstoy was a native of the aristocracy: both have the common touch, in the particular sense of enjoying and celebrating what the Russians call a byt , a way of life natural and dear to them; and both combine this sense of belonging with a penetrating and wholly independent intelligence which, in the end, will not let them belong.
In formalistic terms, the falsities, which are also the received conventions, stand to the truths of his narrative as the conventions of an epic or thriller do to the real world it reveals.
Thus extended scenes or dialogues, like those between fighter pilots, tank men and other heroic figures, sound all wrong, although in a manner the reader is quite used to. In both cases, this is the falsity produced by the realistic reportage of a good war correspondent.
But in between the surfaces of this conventional stuff are small, understated perceptions and awarenesses which gradually transform the whole and give it a secret and a truthful life. The hero of the main Stalingrad defence, General Chuikov, is so angry with a chief of staff who disagrees with him on the exact position of the front line that he knocks his front teeth out.
He also abandons his command post to attend a dinner on the safe bank of the Volga to celebrate the founding of the Cheka. The soldiers watch the grandees arriving for this as if they were colourful fish in a warm glass tank.
An unexpected touch of surrealism is added by an old soldier who refuses to believe that War and Peace is not about this war, in which Tolstoy himself must be fighting, because his reports are so much truer than those of the correspondents. Faithful to the spirit of his model, Grossman celebrates the defence of the homeland against the Germans, as Tolstoy did against the French: but both deprecate the un-Russian spirit of mean efficiency, and ruthless indifference to the human cost, which seeks to carry the war into the enemy country and liquidate him like the kulaks or the party dissidents.
When her sons have saved Russia the Party steps in and takes the credit, giving the cold shoulder to uncommitted loyalty and decency. As at the end of War and Peace , victory seems only to have confirmed tyranny and made it both more confident and more suspicious. Of course everybody knows this now.
The old paradox obtains. What for Suslov must not be published for two hundred years, lest it amaze and confound the faithful, is in the West merely a repetition of what we have been told many times, or what we can work out for ourselves.
Patriotism and decency are all very well, but what won the war was the sheer brutal discipline and drive of the Red Army and the Party — their ability, by whatever means, to keep up the ammunition supply, to get the guns and the conscripts into action.
Stalin was no mystic Fuehrer but Khosain, the owner, the boss, just like Peter the Great, and he himself was fully aware of the relation. But though the two systems functioned in an identical way, the national difference between them was none the less very great. Assent on both sides was equally over-whelming, and in a sense still is. Rather engagingly, Grossman has a weakness for the old thriller technique in which villains love to make long speeches to helpless heroes in defence of their policies, speeches of great elegance and philosophical subtlety.
Naturally, the old Bolsheviks are appalled and agonised by the cynicism of the SS man and the old Chekist, who treat them as no different from themselves. To the reader, however, the tableau is both commonplace and unconvincing. Russians love to talk, and the way they talk lying under an idea as if under a stone, as Chadayev said is more intense and dramatic than anything that usually takes place in a free society.
But conversations designed solely to emphasise a point to the reader are unconvincing in any fictional context. SS and KGB men are far cruder and more naive types than this, and their conversation would most likely be meaninglessly depressing, or as banal as the chat of businessmen in a bar. No one has the right to lead other people like sheep.
The purpose of a revolution is to free people. Unexceptionable sentiments, but they are fatally compromised by being set in the socialist realist mould.
Includes attacks on the Bolshevik take over. In view of the approaching thaw, due to which water has formed on the streets, I direct all UCHKOMS to see to enlisting citizens to work on cleaning ice from the sidewalks, and also cleaning the drainage gratings in the middle of the street. Over the course of the night, the adversary's parties tried to attack twice, but were repulsed by our fire. After 4 A.
London Review of Books
Aleksandr Danilov, Zakhar Klimenkov, Stepan Mischenko, and one worker and four soldiers whose names have not been discovered. Around 6 A. Prisoners were taken by us. From 2 P.
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Your customer number is the digit number, starting with , between the ' ' marks, and is located above your name on the address label. If you subscribed via the website, you can enter the order number from your subscription confirmation email in place of your customer number. These terms and conditions apply to all users of the LRB Website "you" , including individual subscribers to the print edition of the LRB who wish to take advantage of our free 'subscriber only' access to archived material "individual users" and users who are authorised to access the LRB Website by subscribing institutions "institutional users". Each time you use the LRB Website you signify your acceptance of these terms and conditions. If you do not agree, or are not comfortable with any part of this document, your only remedy is not to use the LRB Website. When a long honest novel comes out of Russia today comparisons with Tolstoy are routine — I have made them myself — but in this case it seems worth asking rather more rigorously than usual what they really mean.
Using archival records of the Commissariat of Public Health, journals, and propaganda materials from the antismoking campaign of the Soviet s, this article argues that the revolutionary state pursued an antitobacco policy unique in the world in its attack on tobacco use at a national scale. The commissar of public health, Nikolai Alexandrovich Semashko, attempted to severely curtail tobacco cultivation and production, limit tobacco sales, and create a public opinion against tobacco with a propaganda campaign. Even in failing in its farther-reaching goals, the policy proved one of the most forward in terms of antismoking propaganda and state-sponsored treatment regimens, with the distribution of antismoking posters, pamphlets, articles, plays, and films as well as the creation of special state-sponsored smoking-cessation programs that boasted high success rates. After the February Revolution of , which installed the Provisional Government upon the still-smoldering rubble of the Romanov autocracy, the exiled Bolshevik Vladimir Iliich Lenin began a trek across war-torn Europe to join his voice to those calling for change. Ushered along his way by the German government, who saw no downside in ridding their own territories of radicals while stocking up the Russian state with even more, Lenin steamed through hostile territories, sealed off in a special train car with artificially constructed borders of chalk lines manned by German guards. As the train passed through the fields of one war, Lenin fired the first salvo in a battle that few had anticipated—an attack upon tobacco. It was no secret that Lenin abhorred smoking, but many of his revolutionary colleagues embraced the habit.
Unit of Production Method Definition
Data correspond to usage on the plateform after The current usage metrics is available hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days. Open Access. Papusha, S.
The intent of this article is to give those portraying the Soviet soldier of W. II some tips for your impression. I will try to give useful tips on how to employ your equipment, what to wear or not to wear, what to eat, typically daily activities, etc. First off, the term "Frontovik" is a slang term denoting a combat hardened front-line soldier. It was used similar to the way "G. But although G. Let's start into a normal routine day, beginning with how he sleeps I will use he in this article, although "he" could just as well be a "she" no matter if we're talking about infantry, mortar men, tankers, or whatever. Manuals show it with issue stakes and poles, but apparently most soldiers only carried the cape itself, in horseshoe fashion over the shoulder with its issue rope or some other strap. Photos of it in use as a tent are rare, and it can be assumed that he either used sticks as poles and pegs, or some other expedient method. Use your own ingenuity.
The unit of production method is a method of depreciation the value of an asset over time. Then, multiply that quotient by the number of units used during the current year. Essentially, the depreciation expense claimed in a year is based upon what percentage of an asset's production capacity was used up during that year. This depreciation method can help companies take larger depreciation deductions in years when a given piece of equipment is more productive. Companies claim depreciation on a piece of equipment or property for bookkeeping purposes, but also for tax deductions. Larger deductions in more productive years can help offset other, higher costs associated with higher production levels. The unit of production method most accurately measures depreciation for assets where the "wear and tear" is based on how much they have produced, such as manufacturing or processing equipment. Using the unit of production method for this type of equipment can help a business keep track of its profits and losses more accurately than a time-based method such as straight-line depreciation or MACRS.
All Kronstadt Izvestia
The present invention relates to a method for controlling the size and weight of sugar-containing solid pieces and to the product produced thereby. They are produced by bacteria growing on a sucrose substrate. It has been found that during the harvesting of sugar cane, the bacteria in the soil acting on the sugar cane causes formation of dextrans. The dextrans tend to plasticize the sugar containing same. Thus, when dextran-containing sugar is employed in making candy drops or tablets, it has been found that the dextrans cause distortion of the candy pieces. In accordance with the present invention, a method is provided for controlling distortion in sugar-containing solid pieces as caused by dextrans as well as a method for controlling the size and weight of sugar-containing solid pieces.
«Ukrainian Makhorka» - Organic Tobacco Seeds
Merchants and Markets in Revolutionary Russia, —30 pp Cite as. Private trade in Russia was permanently and profoundly altered by weathering the storms of two revolutions and two wars.
The Background: Private Trade before the NEP
This application claims priority from U. The present invention relates to a nicotine, in particular to compositions, processes, and methods of manufacture of a synthetic or imitation nicotine.
April accomplishments and problems i. May Robert H Reed 3. For hungry men and women cannot wait for economic discussions or diplomatic meetings — their need is urgent—- and their hunger rests heavily on the conscience of their fellow men. Seventh, all the people of the hemisphere must be allowed to share in the expanding wonders of science — wonders which have captured man's
Черт возьми, - подумала Сьюзан. - Почему же так долго. - Ты явно не в себе, - как ни в чем не бывало сказал Хейл.