Additional Information. Show source. Show sources information Show publisher information. This statistic was assembled from several IVC chemical fiber industry updates.
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Classification of Textile FibersVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: How Yarn is Made
Clothing Industry. Classification of Textile Fibers. What is fiber? In a broad sense the word fiber is used for various types of matter — natural or manmade, forming basic elements of textile fabrics and other textile structures. It is defined as one of the delicates, hair-like portion of the tissues of a plant or animal. Fiber is defined by Fabric Link Textile Dictionary as The basic entity, either natural or manufactured, which is twisted into yarns, and then used in the production of a fabric.
The physical interpretation of the word fiber is a unit of matter characterized by having a length of at least hundred times its diameter.
What is textile fiber? Technologists have defined the term Textile fibers as those fibers which can be spun into a yarn or made into a fabric by interlacing, or interlooping in a variety of machines including weaving, knitting, braiding, felting, bonding, etc.
The fabric- and garment manufacturing industry is one of the most essential industries. Its raw materials are fibers. So, in making a textile product the parameters of the basic raw material, fiber, are very important.
The use of textiles for clothes and furnishing hinges on an exceptional combination of properties, such as warmth, softness, and pliability. These properties depend upon the raw materials used to make these products.
Thus for a fiber to be useful for textile purposes, it should have certain properties: the fiber length must be several hundred times the width, it must be able to be converted into yarn, and it must be strong enough to withstand mechanical action during production. So, a textile fiber must have at least 5 mm of length so that it will be supple, flexible, and strong enough to be spun.
Other properties like elasticity, fineness, uniformity, durability, luster, and crimp should also be possessed by a textile fiber. Classification of Textile Fibres: Fibers for textiles are classified by many systems.
One of the basic ways to classify fiber is by its origin, and this is indeed the most commonly employed method. Flow chart-1 gives a general overview of fiber classification. Flow chart Overview of fiber classification There are various types of fibers used in the textile industry, each having their unique properties. These characteristics are largely dependent upon their origins. Natural fibers are obtained from nature, where the source could be a plant, an animal, or a mineral. Regarding plants, we obtain fibers from seeds cotton, coir , from leaves sisal , and from stems jute, flax, ramie, etc.
From animals we get wool and silk and from minerals we obtain asbestos. With the increasing population, the demand for textiles is ever increasing and to meet these demands mankind has started to develop fibers commonly classified as manmade fibers.
Man made fibers are produced from polymer sources, either from nature regenerated fibers or from synthetic polymers. Classification is branching of whole discipline in different categories. Since textile fibers have ceased to be of descriptive discipline and have become a branch of science, the exactness and intricacy has entered into it. Therefore, before selecting any textile fiber for the intended use, the knowledge of the classification of textile fibers is essential.
Classification of textile fibers can be done in many ways. Some of them are as follows: Classification according to their nature and origin. Classification according to the ability to attract water, i. Classification according to their thermo plasticity. Classification according to their utility. Classification according to their nature and origin: Flow charts 2—9 show the classification of main natural and manmade fibers used normally in textile applications.
The fibers are normally classified as natural and manmade. Among natural subgrouping is made as animal origin, vegetable origin and mineral origin.
The manmade fibers are further subgrouped as regenerated fibers and synthetic fibers. Natural fibers are those fibers which are available from the natural sources, viz. The mineral fibers are also referred as miscellaneous inorganic fibers. Manmade fibers are those fibres which are developed by man. Man possesses a natural instinct of imitating nature and its products. Textiles are no exception to it.
Therefore, sometimes back in their earlier development stages, manmade fibres were also called Artificial Fibres. Flow chart Classification of fibers Flow chart Natural vegetable fibers Flow chart Animal fibers Flow chart Keratin types fiber Flow chart Non keratin types fiber Flow chart Mineral fiber Asbestos If the manmade fibers are obtained from cellulosic base material then they are termed as regenerated cellulosic manmade fibers; if they are manufactured from synthesizing using various chemicals like the petroleum products then they are called synthetic manmade fibers.
Manmade fibers can be broadly classified into regenerated fibers, synthetic fibers and miscellaneous inorganic fibers. You can also read: Man Made Fibre Manufacturing Process Regenerated natural-polymer fibers polymer is a fiber forming substance are those fibers which are regenerated by using natural source as a base and are chemically shaped to filament form, e.
Flow chart Manmade regenerated fibers Synthetic fibers are those fibers where only chemicals are used in the manufacture of such fibers. They do not require natural raw material as a base for the manufacture, as in the case of regenerated fibres. For example, hexamethylenediamine and adipic acid are used in the manufacture of nylon and dimethyl terephthalate and ethylene glycol in the production of polyester fibre etc. The chemicals are converted into materials capable of forming fibers and these substances are manipulated into fibrous form.
In another way, synthetic fibers can also be classified in two groups, viz. The macromolecules of heterochain fibres contain in their main chain carbon atoms and atoms of other elements, such as, oxygen and nitrogen. These polymers are usually obtained by polycondensation or polymerization of cyclic compounds. The macromolecules of heterochain fibers have a carbon skeletal chain, i. Such polymers are obtained by polymerization. Flow chart Synthetic fibers Miscellaneous inorganic fibers are those fibers which are made from substances such as metal and glass.
Both these materials have been used by man for a long time in forms other than textile fibres. Thus malleable and ductile nature suggested the use as textile fibres long ago, but the cost and technical difficulties hindered its wide use.
Modern developments in converting both these materials into textiles have overcome the difficulties to ensure their modest regular use. The classification of fibres under this category is by no means exhaustive but Flow charts 2—9 do include the main apparel use fibres as well as some of the less well known fibres.
Classification according to their botanical, zoological or chemical name:. Share This:. Email This BlogThis! Labels: Fiber. Newer Post Older Post Home. Search This Blog. Popular Posts. Sewing Machine Parts and Functions with Pictures. There are different types of machine and equipments are used to manufacture garments. Among them sewing machine plays an important role in A n important aspect of quality assurance is to match products with suitable factories.
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Flow chart Classification of fibers. Flow chart Natural vegetable fibers. Flow chart Animal fibers. Flow chart Keratin types fiber. Flow chart Non keratin types fiber. Flow chart Mineral fiber Asbestos. Flow chart Manmade regenerated fibers. Flow chart Synthetic fibers.
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Introductory Chapter: Textile Manufacturing Processes
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Reviewed: June 11th Published: August 28th Textile Manufacturing Processes. Textile fibers provided an integral component in modern society and physical structure known for human comfort and sustainability. Man is a friend of fashion in nature. The desire for better garment and apparel resulted in the development of textile fiber production and textile manufacturing process.
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Units of textile measurement
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Consumption is measured by the amount of raw cotton fibre purchased and used to manufacture textile materials. Worldwide cotton production is annually about 80 to 90 million bales The rest is produced by about 75 other countries. Raw cotton is exported from about 57 countries and cotton textiles from about 65 countries. Many countries emphasize domestic production to reduce their reliance on imports. Yarn manufacturing is a sequence of processes that convert raw cotton fibres into yarn suitable for use in various end-products. A number of processes are required to obtain the clean, strong, uniform yarns required in modern textile markets. Beginning with a dense package of tangled fibres cotton bale containing varying amounts of non-lint materials and unusable fibre foreign matter, plant trash, motes and so on , continuous operations of opening, blending, mixing, cleaning, carding, drawing, roving and spinning are performed to transform the cotton fibres into yarn. However, for the foreseeable future, the current conventional systems of blending, carding, drawing, roving and spinning will continue to be used. Only the cotton picking process seems clearly destined for elimination in the near future.
Two Representations of Yarn Size or Thickness
Yarn is made of cotton, wool, linen, chemical fibers, etc. It is usually used as raw material for weaving. There are two ways to express the yarn thickness: one is the fixed length system, which is expressed by the weight of the yarn of the specified length. One is fixed weight, which is expressed by the length of yarn per unit weight. Metric count refers to the meter multiple of 1 gram heavy yarn length at a given moisture regain, that is to say, 1 gram heavy yarn is exactly 1 meter long, 1 metric count yarn, 1 gram heavy yarn is meters long, yarn fineness is Metric count is also fixed, so the bigger the count, the thinner the yarn.
The textile process
Yarn is a strand composed of fibres, filaments individual fibres of extreme length , or other materials, either natural or man-made, suitable for use in the construction of interlaced fabrics, such as woven or knitted types. The strand may consist of a number of fibres twisted together; a number of filaments grouped together but not twisted; a number of filaments twisted together; a single filament, called a monofilament, either with or without twist; or one or more strips made by dividing a sheet of material, such as paper or metal foil, and either twisted or untwisted. The properties of the yarn employed greatly influence the appearance, texture, and performance of the completed fabric. Fibres are units of matter having length at least times their diameter or width. Fibres suitable for textile use possess adequate length, fineness, strength, and flexibility for yarn formation and fabric construction and for withstanding the intended use of the completed fabric. Other properties affecting textile fibre performance include elasticity, crimp waviness , moisture absorption, reaction to heat and sunlight, reaction to the various chemicals applied during processing and in the dry cleaning or laundering of the completed fabric, and resistance to insects and microorganisms.
Textile fibers , threads , yarns and fabrics are measured in a multiplicity of units. Micronaire is a measure of the air permeability of cotton fiber and is an indication of fineness and maturity. One millionth of a meter , or one thousandth of a millimeter; about one-fourth the width of a strand of spider silk.
Read more. All textiles are made up of fibres that are arranged in different ways to create the desired strength, durability, appearance and texture. The fibres can be of countless origins, but can be grouped into four main categories.
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