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Motion-picture technology , the means for the production and showing of motion pictures. It includes not only the motion-picture camera and projector but also such technologies as those involved in recording sound, in editing both picture and sound, in creating special effects , and in producing animation. Motion-picture technology is a curious blend of the old and the new. In one piece of equipment state-of-the-art digital electronics may be working in tandem with a mechanical system invented in Furthermore, the technology of motion pictures is based not only on the prior invention of still photography but also on a combination of several more or less independent technologies; that is, camera and projector design, film manufacture and processing, sound recording and reproduction, and lighting and light measurement.
Motion-picture photography is based on the phenomenon that the human brain will perceive an illusion of continuous movement from a succession of still images exposed at a rate above 15 frames per second. Although posed sequential pictures had been taken as early as , successive photography of actual movement was not achieved until , when Eadweard Muybridge used 12 equally spaced cameras to demonstrate that at some time all four hooves of a galloping horse left the ground at once.
In —78 an associate of Muybridge devised a system of magnetic releases to trigger an expanded battery of 24 cameras. The Muybridge pictures were widely published in still form. The first was a mechanism to enable sequence photographs to be taken within a single camera at regular, rapid intervals, and the second was a medium capable of storing images for more than the second or so of movement possible from drums, wheels, or disks.
A motion-picture camera must be able to advance the medium rapidly enough to permit at least 16 separate exposures per second as well as bring each frame to a full stop to record a sharp image. Twelve shots per second could be recorded onto a circular glass plate. Marey subsequently increased the frame rate, although for no more than about 30 images, and employed strips of sensitized paper and paper-backed celluloid instead of the fragile, bulky glass.
The transparent material trade-named celluloid was first manufactured commercially in It was derived from collodion, that is, nitrocellulose gun cotton dissolved in alcohol and dried. John Carbutt manufactured the first commercially successful celluloid photographic film in , but it was too stiff for convenient use.
By the George Eastman company had developed a roll film of celluloid coated with photographic emulsion for use in its Kodak still camera. This sturdy, flexible medium could transport a rapid succession of numerous images and was eventually adapted for motion pictures. Thomas Edison is often credited with the invention of the motion picture in Dickson , and generally because there are several plausible pre-Edison claimants in England and France. Indeed, a U. Supreme Court decision of concluded that Edison had not invented the motion picture but had only combined the discoveries of others.
His systems are important, nevertheless, because they prevailed commercially. Two rows of sprocket holes, each with four holes per frame, ran the length of the film and were used to advance it.
One viewer at a time could watch a film by looking through the eyepiece of a peep-show cabinet known as the Kinetoscope. In the zoetrope, a slit opposite the picture produced a stroboscopic effect; in the Kinetoscope the film traveled at the rate of 40 frames per second, and a slit in a inch-diameter rotating shutter wheel afforded an exposure of 6, second.
Illumination was provided by an electric bulb positioned directly beneath the film. The film ran over spools. Its ends were spliced together to form a continuous loop, which was initially 25 to 30 feet long but later was lengthened to almost 50 feet. A direct-current motor powered by an Edison storage battery moved the film at a uniform rate. The Kinetoscope launched the motion-picture industry , but its technical limitations made it unsuitable for projection.
Films may run continuously when a great deal of light is not crucial, but a bright, enlarged picture requires that each frame be arrested and exposed intermittently as in the camera.
The following year Armat agreed to allow Edison to produce the projectors in quantity and to market them as Edison Vitascopes. In Armat patented the first projector with four-slot star and cam as in the Edison camera. One limitation of early motion-picture filming was the tearing of sprocket holes. The eventual solution to this problem was the addition to the film path of a slack-forming loop that restrained the inertia of the take-up reel.
When this so-called Latham loop was applied to cameras and projectors with intermittent movement, the growth and shrinkage of the loops on either side of the shutter adjusted for the disparity between the stop-and-go motion at the aperture and the continuous movement of the reels. When the art of projection was established, the importance of a bright screen picture was appreciated.
Motion-picture technology. Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Introduction History Introduction of sound Introduction of colour Wide-screen and stereoscopic pictures Professional motion-picture production Cameras Principal parts Camera supports Film Lighting Light sources Light measurement Film processing and printing Sound-recording techniques Optical recording Magnetic recording Double-system recording The sound recordist Microphones Editing Picture editing Editing equipment Electronic editing Special effects Sound editing Dialogue Sound effects Music Mixing Projection technology and theatre design Projection techniques Sound reproduction Auditorium design Motion pictures for scientific purposes Time-lapse cinematography High-speed cinematography Optical systems outside the camera Framing Illumination Animation Figural basis of animation Noncellular animation Planning Execution Newer techniques.
Motion-picture technology Written By: Stephen G. See Article History. Alternative Titles: film technology, movie technology. History Motion-picture photography is based on the phenomenon that the human brain will perceive an illusion of continuous movement from a succession of still images exposed at a rate above 15 frames per second.
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ALPA cameras are precision tools, made with passion and skilled craftsmanship for a small group of connoisseurs. Much like musical instruments, these tools require the expertise and the careful eye of a master. ALPA photographers do not require automatic functions or a constant stream of new models. We simply provide the same that all good manufacturers of tools and instruments do — we provide the best possible quality in design, material and an open ear to all the wishes of our customers. ALPA's clients include world-class photographic artists, magnum professionals, leading advertising, architectural and landscape photographers and photo enthusiasts around the globe.
List of photographic equipment makers
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That's just 35mm film. Nowadays, the question of how to choose the best film cameras is quite popular among photographers. There are three kinds of films you are likely to encounter: colour negatives, E-6 slide films, and. Although few manufacturers still produce 35mm film cameras, there are many used film cameras for sale.
Same products but just better prices!. Leica Camera AG is an internationally operating, premium-segment manufacturer of cameras and sport optics products. Hasselblad claimed other various minor improvements, like easier focussing. He also shares interesting episodes that have occurred during his photo shoots. At Camera Exchange Store, we are conscious of the environmental impact we have, and will always do our upmost to ensure that when you make the decision to take part in our camera trade in, your old camera will be remarketed, recycled and re-used so that damage to the environment is kept to an absolute minimum. Send us a message and we'll be in touch with you within business days. Wearable HD digital video cameras. You can also put a very modern digital back on a very old Hasselblad. Houston, Texas
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This list of photographic equipment makers lists companies that manufacture or license manufacture from other companies equipment for photography. Note that producers whose only presence in the photo industry at any time has been the manufacture of digital cameras Logitech , for example, which has made Webcams are listed separately on the List of digital camera brands. There is not a very clear distinguishing line between camera producers and lens producers; many companies do both, or have done both at one time or another. Some camera manufacturers sell lenses made by others as their own, in an OEM arrangement. Some camera makers design lenses but outsource manufacture. Some lens makers have cameras made to sell under their own brand name. A few companies are only in the lens business. Some camera companies make no lenses, but usually at least sell a lens from some lens maker with their cameras as part of a package.
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Although we are fully equipped for documentary and film productions. We are also a full service consulting, equipment and data management team. We work with qualified engineers, boom operators and sound recordists both in the studio and out in the field to provide top quality 5. We own and operate global industry standard including Lectrosonics, Senheiser, Comtek and Sony microphones as well as Sound Devices field production mixers with integrated recorders, Taskam Linear PCM recorders and Edirol R4 Portable field recorders. We can also provide Boompoles, customized soundcarts and much more. Whether you require a studio session or a crystal clear recording in a remote location, we have the equipment and the technical know-how to capture exactly what you need. To do so , we need an arsenal of tools such as lens kits, lenses, lights, reflectors, mirrors filters, gels and diffusers in order to set the depth, mood, tone and emotion of each scene. Cast, crew and equipment security is our priority. Your equipment will always be in perfect condition and ready to roll when you arrive on set or on location. We understand your needs and we will go out of our way to make you feel like a VIP.
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- Мне нужно в туалет. Хейл ухмыльнулся, но, подождав еще минуту, отошел в сторону. - Извини, Сью, я пошутил.
Однако одиночество не принесло ей успокоения. В голове у Сьюзан беспрестанно крутилась мысль о контактах Танкадо с Хейлом. Кто будет охранять охранников. - подумала .
Посмотрим, вернулся ли. Разумеется, на ее экране замигал значок, извещающий о возвращении Следопыта.