The origins of the wool industry are lost in antiquity. Sheep were easily domesticated by our remote ancestors and were important in satisfying their basic needs for food and clothing. Early human societies rubbed together the fibres collected from the sheep to form a yarn, and from this basic principle the processes of manipulating the fibre have increased in complexity. The wool textile industry has been in the forefront in developing and adapting mechanical methods and was therefore one of the early industries in the development of the factory system of production. The length of fibre when taken from the animal is the dominant, but not the only, factor determining how it is processed. The type of wool available may be broadly classified into a merino or botany, b crossbreds—fine, medium or coarse and c carpet wools.
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This banner text can have markup. Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. S;- uf.!? This report is an outgrowth of the above recommendation and deals with the economic aspects of the production, distribution, and consumption of vrool grease. Many of the problems presented in this report are typical of those found in any industry dependent on a byproduct for its raw material.
Although the wool grease industry is relatively small, it is important to many sectors of the economy. As a profitable byproduct, wool grease can be of greater significajice to the wool industry than it is at present.
Wool grease is of economic significance because it is widely used in many industries and is indispensable to a few. It ha. In this report, the marketing channels and functions as well as the structure and characteristics of the wool grease industry are described and analyzed in some detail.
Grease production by the wool scouring industry and the competitive situation of the product relative to other fats and oils made it necessary to discuss the economic and technical aspects of its production and consumption. Several other objectives were attained by this study.
The average per unit cost of scouring grease wool and recovering wool grease was developed for the industry for the first time. The present and potential production of wool grease in the United States has been estimated and compared to the uses and markets for wool grease and of lanolin. The demand characteristics of the industries using wool grease have been ascertained in order to answer the principal query of the wool scourers: "Given a certain level of production of wool grease in the United States, at what price can it be sold?
It is hoped, however, that its comprehensive- ness will lead to a better understanding of the marketing pattern for wool grease and, consequently, will aid in the development of a more orderly distribution system and assist in opening new areas of use among potential users. The major portion of the vork vas done by Robert S. Raymond, formerly research associate of the Foundation, and nov assistant professor, Pennsylvania State University, under the direction and supervision of Stuart L.
Nfendell, assistant professor, Lowell Technological Institute. The basic research design for the study, technical super- vision of the contract, and preparation of the manuscript for final publication were the responsibilities of Shelby A. Robert, Jr. Others from the Department participating in the planning of this study were John T. Foote, Agricultural Marketing Service. The United States Department of Agriculture and the Lowell Technological Institute Research Foundation appreciate the cooperation of many individuals and organizations without whose assistance the completion of this study would not have been possible.
The sources of information and assistauace in collecting the data presented in this report are too numerous to list individually. However, special appreciation is due to E. Henry HoJjn, I. Malmstrom, A. Wagner, and Frank Fanning, wool grease refiners, whose knowledge of and experience in the refining industry were generously given to the Reseeirch Foundation.
For valuable technical assistance the Research Foundation is grateful to Philip N. Dwyer, chief chemist, 0. King Company; T. Crowley and L. Among those who read all or parts of this manuscript and contributed valuable advice and suggestions are Ruth Jackendoff , director of the Department of Economics and Statistics, and Giles Hopkins, tech- nical director.
The Wool Bureau, Inc. Derby, president. Day, University of Tulsa, Tulsa, Okla. Statement of purpose ij. Scope and method of study 5 Definition of terms 5 General characteristics of wool grease and lanolin. Government Printing Office Washington 25, D.
A steady demand is believed to be already available to absorb the added production without unreasonably low prices. At the same time, improvements in waste disposal which could be obtained efficiently with larger production would contribute to the abatement of stresun pollution.
An increased supply of wool grease will not solve all of the industry's problems nor will fluctuations in supply and conse- quent fluctuations in price be completely eliminated.
But the same fluctuations around a higher mean annual production would have substantially less serious effects. Reductions below an already low level of wool grease production in the United States can cause severe financial loss to industrial users, who experience not only price increases but actual physical shortages.
When average annual production is high, all users can meet their absolute needs, and the imrgin for adjustment by users is much greater than when production is low. There is also reason to believe that price fluctuations would be less at a higher produc- tion level, since enough wool grease would then be available so that the needs of marginal users could be met with only minor changes in the market price. With respect to the future market outlook for this product, the many uses for the alcohol portion of the wool grease ester and many possibilities for use of the acidic fractions are of great potential importance.
However, it is also an imp ortant fact that, even when the price of wool grease has been competitive with prices of other animal and vegetable fats and oils, the uncertainty of the wool grease supply has persuaded many firms to seek less satisfactory but more plentiful substitutes. With the wool scouring industry concentrated in the Northeastern part of the United States, the problem of stream pollution from wool scouring operations has become increasingly important. The following possibilities are pointed out to wool scourers as the result of an analysis based on the assumptions that, for mills scouring at least 3 million pounds of apparel wool annually, wool grease recovery by centrifuge is economically sound, and that, for smaller scourers, waste water treatment is as justifiable an expense as the usual payment for treatment of intake water.
The consensus in the industry is that aqueous scouring offers serious disadvantages not inherent in the solvent method. The ideal method should combine efficient, low-cost scouring with abatement of stream pollution and maximum recovery of grease.
Where technically and geogxapMcally feasible, cooperation by these mills might include one or both of the following operations : a As cost studies in this industry indicate, lowest costs for scouring can be achieved by large-scale, three-shift operation, centralized scouring enterprises.
These might be set up near the ports of Boston, New York, and Philadelphia. The success of these enterprises as commission scourers to small mills would depend upoa their management's technical knowledge as much as upon their ability to reduce costs.
It might be economical for these adjacent plants to pipe their waste to a single - 3 - recovery plant. If an acid -cracking system of grease recovery were used, larger mills might find a greater net return by delivering their effluent via pipeline than by centrifuging it themselves.
Some people in the industry have suggested subsidies to marginal producers to increase the production of wool grease. This might be applicable diiring wartime if wool grease were considered a strategic material important for its use in leather, cordage, rust preventives, and lubricants. Others in the industry suggested accelerated rates of depreciation on recovery equipment as a method that might also increase production.
A suggestion from one segment of the industry was that a trade association might be formed by the wool grease refiners to l promote the use of wool grease, lanolin, and derivatives, 2 act as spokesman for the industry, 3 promote research on uses, k set up trade standards, 5 collect data from all sources and make it available in one place, and 6 exchange general information among members.
In any event, the suggestion was nnde that the refiners collec- tively undertake or encourage research on the technical aspects of wool grease uses. Both private and public research facilities could be called on for this work. Research is presently under way at the Regional Laboratories of the U.
Department of Agriculture on expanded utilization of wool grease and improved methods of scouring and grease recovery. Such research, if successful, could assist in stabilizing the wool grease industry, expanding present uses and developing the many potential uses for wool grease and its components, and abating the problem of stream pollution.
The recurring shortages of this material and the attendant repercussions make such a survey important not only to producers, refiners, and industrial users, but also to potential and marginal wool grease producers and ultimate consumers,, A better understanding of the marketing pattern for vool grease can aid in the development of a more orderly distribution system and consequently open new areas of use among potential users.
Statement of Purpose Tlie ultimate purpose of this study was to make an economic appraisal of wool grease as a byproduct of the wool industry.
As a profitable byproduct, wool grease can be of greater signi- ficance to the wool industry than at present. The cost of processing wool can be reduced if a more efficient recovery of wool grease can be effected and if additional remunerative markets can be established or present markets expanded.
This analysis will also yield an estimate of the prices that can be obtained throiighout the wool grease industry at given levels of production. This study touches upon several larger pertinent problems than wool grease production, and on mciny other areas of industrial activity. Among these larger problems are stream pollution, national defense, and wool consumption. The waste from the scouring of grease wool is a powerful pollutant to the streams in the northeastern paxt of the United States.
The situation has disturbed public health officials whose duty it is to supply cities with potable water, manufacturers whose water supply must be pre- treated at increased expense, ajid many groups and individuals who use the waterways for sport and recreation.
The problem of national defense is involved because, for some pmrposes, the militairy forces can find no good or close substitutes for wool grease and lanolin. The matter of wool consumption involves not only the producers of wool in the United States, "but also the processors of wool who are faced with the problems occasioned by the extensive introduction of synthetic substitutes.
Scope and Ifethod of Study This study involved all wool grease refiners, nearly all grease wool scourers in the United States, and a cross section of the industrial users. A follow- up letter was mailed to non-respondents; where practicable, a personal interview was obtained to explain the project in greater detail.
Their number and location made this the most practical and economicaJ. Information was obtained from industrial users by questionnaire, telephone, letter, and, where practicable, by personal interview. Lanolin ]J The material refined from wool grease known as technical lanolin, U. Scourer An estahlishment scouring grease vrool on a commercial basis.
Refiner A lanolin manufacturer who distributes both wool grease and lanolin. General Characteristics of Wool Grease and Lanolin Wool grease is known and referred to as wool fat, lanolin, lanoline, neutral wool grease, and degras, and by various other terms.
Chemically, wool grease is a wax rather than a fat since it contains no ester of glycerol. The true waxes have long -chain monohydric alcohols in place of the glycerol. Unlike true fats such as tallow,, butter, and lard, wool grease also lanolin does not become oxidized more than enough to form a surface film tlaat acts as a protective coating, nor does it become rancid by exposure to air or during long periods in storage.
It is unlike other waxes, such as carnauba or ouricouny which harden in air and take a high, durable polish. Its outstanding property, however, is its ability to form very stable emulsions of the water-in-oil type. It is self -emulsifying, and when added to other oils, even in small amounts of 5 to 10 percent, it enables them to absorb many times their ovn weight in water.
This property enables water- soluble medicaments mixed with lanolin to be held in contact with the skin until they can be absorbed. General Supply Situation The supply of wool grease available for consumption in the United States is derived from two sources, as shown in figure 1.
The principal one is the grease produced as a byproduct by 38 scourers of apparel wool that recover the wool grease from their scouring liquors. The other and secondary source is imports. Centrifuged grease that is suitable for refining into lajio- lin is produced by 35 domestic scourers. It can be desulphurized with sodium sulphite at a cost of approximately 1 cent a pound. Wool grease obtained by this process was sold under ceiling prices of the former Office of Price Stabilization OPS at approximately 15 cents a poimd in contrast to 20 cents a pound for centrlfxoged grease.
Recovery of wax from wool : Wool wax is a greasy substance secreted by fatty glands of the skin. Wool grease is recovered by centrifuging aqueous scouring liquors from the washing of greasy wool with detergents, often called centrifugal woolgrease. Chemically speaking, it is a complex mixture of wax esters of long chain fatty acids and alcohols, the latter including cholesterol, lanosterol and dihydrolanosterol. Centrifugal woolgrease is often considered by buyers to be of the best quality, especially if it is passed through 2 or more centrifuging steps.
Textile recycling is the process by which old clothing and other textiles are recovered for reuse or material recovery. It is the basis for the textile recycling industry. The necessary steps in the textile recycling process involve the donation, collection, sorting and processing of textiles, and then subsequent transportation to end users of used garments, rags or other recovered materials. The basis for the growing textile recycling industry is, of course, the textile industry itself. The importance of recycling textiles is increasingly being recognized.
United States. Committee on Banking and Currency. Additional data submitted for the record byContinued. Table W Population nonagricultural employment.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: How Small Satellites are Changing the Space Industry
This banner text can have markup. Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. S;- uf.!? This report is an outgrowth of the above recommendation and deals with the economic aspects of the production, distribution, and consumption of vrool grease. Many of the problems presented in this report are typical of those found in any industry dependent on a byproduct for its raw material. Although the wool grease industry is relatively small, it is important to many sectors of the economy. As a profitable byproduct, wool grease can be of greater significajice to the wool industry than it is at present. Wool grease is of economic significance because it is widely used in many industries and is indispensable to a few. It ha.
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Отпусти. - Чтобы вы меня убили. - Я не собираюсь тебя убивать. Мне нужен только ключ. - Какой ключ. Стратмор снова вздохнул. - Тот, который тебе передал Танкадо. - Понятия не имею, о чем .
Наконец-то, черт возьми. Бринкерхофф поднял трубку: - Канцелярия директора. Фонтейн протянул руку. Бринкерхофф со смущенным видом повернулся к Мидж: - Это Джабба. Он хочет поговорить с. Директор метнул на нее настороженный взгляд, но Мидж уже бежала к аппарату.
Она решила включить громкую связь. - Слушаю, Джабба. Металлический голос Джаббы заполнил комнату: - Мидж, я в главном банке данных.
- Кто знает, какая разница между этими элементами. На лицах тех застыло недоумение. - Давайте же, ребята. -сказал Джабба. - Вы же учились в колледжах. Ну, кто-нибудь. Разница между ураном и плутонием.
Коды, с которыми столкнулось агентство, больше не были шифрами, что разгадывают с помощью карандаша и листка бумаги в клетку, - теперь это были компьютеризированные функции запутывания, основанные на теории хаоса и использующие множественные символические алфавиты, чтобы преобразовать сообщение в абсолютно хаотичный набор знаков.
Сначала используемые пароли были довольно короткими, что давало возможность компьютерам АНБ их угадывать. Если искомый пароль содержал десять знаков, то компьютер программировался так, чтобы перебирать все комбинации от 0000000000 до 9999999999, и рано или поздно находил нужное сочетание цифр.
От раздавшегося взрыва содрогнулся весь комплекс Агентства национальной безопасности. Лиланд Фонтейн, Чед Бринкерхофф и Мидж Милкен в безмолвном ужасе смотрели на открывшуюся их глазам картину. Тридцатью метрами ниже горел купол шифровалки. Поликарбонатная крыша еще была цела, но под ее прозрачной оболочкой бушевало пламя.
Вопреки желанию Стратмора специалисты по заделыванию прорех такого рода, опасаясь, что Танкадо попытается убедить людей в существовании ТРАНСТЕКСТА, начали распускать порочащие его слухи. Энсей Танкадо стал изгоем мирового компьютерного сообщества: никто не верил калеке, обвиняемому в шпионаже, особенно когда он пытался доказать свою правоту, рассказывая о какой-то фантастической дешифровальной машине АНБ.
Самое странное заключалось в том, что Танкадо, казалось, понимал, что таковы правила игры. Он не дал волю гневу, а лишь преисполнился решимости.
- Не желаете купить. Нуматака чуть не расхохотался во весь голос. Он знал, что это трюк. Корпорация Нуматек сделала очень крупную ставку на новый алгоритм Танкадо, и теперь кто-то из конкурентов пытается выведать ее величину.