Featuring contributions from major technology vendors, industry consortia, and government and private research establishments, the Industrial Communication Technology Handbook, Second Edition provides comprehensive and authoritative coverage of wire- and wireless-based specialized communication networks used in plant and factory automation, automotive applications, avionics, building automation, energy and power systems, train applications, and more. The Industrial Communication Technology Handbook, Second Edition supplies readers with a thorough understanding of the application-specific requirements for communication services and their supporting technologies. It is useful to a broad spectrum of professionals involved in the conception, design, development, standardization, and use of specialized communication networks as well as academic institutions engaged in engineering education and vocational training. Richard Zurawski, M. Eng, Ph. He has over 35 years of academic and industrial experience, including a regular professorial appointment at the University of Tokyo, Japan.
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- Outside plant
- Boosting smart manufacturing with 5G wireless connectivity
- Factory Wireless
- Wireless Network Design for Emerging IIoT Applications: Reference Framework and Use Cases
- FAMECS 스킵네비게이션
- What is 5G? The business guide to next-generation wireless technology
- CC-Link IE TSN: Accelerate Smart Factory With TSN Technology
- SCALANCE M: industrial routers for IP-based networks
- US8390150B2 - Field device interface with network protection mechanism - Google Patents
- Is Your Plant Floor Capable of Connection?
Outside plantVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Industrial Control Panel Basics
Industry 4. Fully connected factories will rely on cloud technologies, as well as connectivity based on Ethernet Time-Sensitive Networking TSN and wireless 5G radio. The fourth industrial revolution — a. In this environment, all participants and components of the processes must be able to cooperate and communicate with each other seamlessly. This Ericsson Technology Review article explains how 5G can be used effectively in the fully-connected factories of the future.
It also explores how 5G can provide deterministic ultra-reliable low-latency communication URLLC to bring wireless connectivity to demanding industrial equipment, like industrial controllers and actuators. Coming 5G enhancements will provide additional value to industrial services such as precise indoor positioning, and time synchronization for industrial end devices.
The goal of Industry 4. The integration of 5G ultra-reliable low-latency communication URLLC in the manufacturing process has great potential to accelerate the transformation of the manufacturing industry and make smart factories more efficient and productive. The fourth industrial revolution will require a transition from this segmented and hierarchical network design toward a fully connected one.
This transition, in combination with the introduction of 5G wireless communication technology, will provide very high flexibility in building and configuring production systems on demand.
Figure 1: Hierarchical network design based on the industrial automation pyramid. The lower section of Figure 1 is often referred to as the operational technology OT part of the manufacturing plant, comprising both the field level industrial devices and controllers and the manufacturing execution system.
The top section is the information technology IT part, made up of general enterprise resource planning. For connectivity at field level, a variety of fieldbus and industrial Ethernet technologies are typically used.
Currently deployed wireless solutions which are typically wireless LAN based using unlicensed spectrum constitute only a small fraction of the installed base; they mainly play a role for wirelessly connecting sensors where communication requirements are non-critical. Today, the field level consists of connectivity islands that are separated by gateways GWs , which helps to provide the required performance within each connectivity island.
The GWs are also needed for protocol translation between the different industrial networking technologies. However, this segmented design puts limitations on the digitalization of factories, as information within one part of the factory cannot be easily extracted and used elsewhere. One near-term benefit of leveraging wireless connectivity in factories is the significant reduction in the amount of cables used, which reduces cost, since cables are typically very expensive to install, rearrange or replace.
In addition, wireless connectivity enables new use cases that cannot be implemented with wired connectivity, such as moving robots, automated guided vehicles and the tracking of products as they move through the production process. Wireless connectivity also makes it possible to achieve greater floor plan layout flexibility and deploy factory equipment more easily. The manufacturing industry has specific 5G requirements that differ significantly from public mobile broadband MBB services.
These include URLLC with ultra-high availability and resilience, which can only be satisfied with a dedicated local network deployment using licensed spectrum. The ability to integrate with the existing industrial Ethernet LAN and existing industrial nodes and functions is another fundamental requirement.
Data integrity and privacy are also critical, as well as real-time performance monitoring. In addition, 5G capabilities in terms of positioning, time synchronization between devices, security and network slicing will also be essential for many manufacturing use cases.
One of the two service categories of machine-type communication MTC in 5G — critical MTC cMTC — is designed to meet communication demands with stringent requirements on latency, reliability and availability. With NR we will see large-scale deployments of advanced antenna systems enabling state-of-the-art beamforming and MIMO multiple-input, multiple-output techniques, which are powerful tools for improving throughput, capacity and coverage .
Multi-antenna techniques will also be important for URLLC, as they can be used to improve reliability. The scalable numerology of NR provides good means to achieve low latency, as larger subcarrier spacing SCS reduces the transmission time interval.
To further reduce latency and increase reliability, several new MAC medium access control and PHY physical layer features as well as new multi-connectivity architecture options have been added to the 5G NR specifications in 3GPP release 15, and additional enhancements are being studied in release The goal in release 16 is to enable 0.
New capabilities include faster scheduling, smaller and more robust transmissions, repetitions, faster retransmissions, preemption and packet duplication . All in all, they ensure NR is equipped with a powerful toolbox that can be used to tailor the performance to the demands of each specific device and traffic flow on a factory shop floor.
The achievable round-trip time RTT depends both on which features and spectrum are used. There is a trade-off between latency, reliability and capacity, and different scheduling strategies can be used to achieve a certain level of reliability and latency. A packet can be encoded with a very low and robust code rate, and just be transmitted once, but if the RTT is shorter than the application latency constraint, it can be more efficient to use a higher, less robust initial code rate and perform retransmissions based on feedback in case the initial transmission fails.
Thus, the shorter the RAN RTT is compared with the application latency constraint, the higher spectral efficiency capacity may be achieved.
The availability of spectrum resources is key to meeting requirements on capacity, bitrates and latency. To provide predictable and reliable service levels on the factory shop floor, the spectrum resources need to be managed carefully. The achievable performance depends on several factors:. Estimates of spectrum needs are in the range of tens to hundreds of megahertz. Most new mid-band spectrum that is currently being allocated uses TDD, while large parts of the spectrum already allocated to mobile operators are FDD.
Mid-band spectrum is well suited for indoor deployments since its propagation characteristics make it easy to provide good coverage with a limited set of transmission points. Coverage at mmWave is generally spottier, requiring denser radio deployment, but mmWave is still a good complement to mid-band for in-factory deployments since it enables:. For critical applications, there must be guarantees against uncontrolled interference, which implies that licensed spectrum is necessary.
As illustrated in Figure 2, unlicensed technologies such as Wi-Fi and MulteFire cannot guarantee bounded low latency with high reliability as the load increases. This is due to the use of listen-before-talk back-off, which does not perform well during uncontrolled interference. Unlicensed spectrum may nonetheless be relevant for less critical applications.
Figure 2: Latency and reliability aspects of spectrum and technology choice. Licensed spectrum can be provided by operators as part of a local connectivity solution, including network equipment. Operators may also choose to lease parts of their spectrum assets locally to industries without providing the connectivity solution.
Another emerging option is for regulators to set aside dedicated spectrum for local licensing to industries, as is under consideration in some European countries such as Germany and Sweden on 3.
The introduction of 5G on the factory shop floor will happen in steps. When 5G is added to existing production systems, the various parts of the system will be moved to 5G connectivity at different stages, depending on the evolution plan of the production system and where the highest benefits of wireless 5G communication can be obtained.
Over time, more parts of the shop floor can be migrated to 5G, in part due to the introduction of new capabilities in future 5G releases. Even in greenfield industrial deployments, not all communication will be based on 5G. The need for wireless connectivity may not be prominent for some subsystems, while others may require performance levels isochronous sub-millisecond latency, for example that are not currently addressed by 5G. Consequently, a local industrial 5G deployment will coexist and require integration with wired industrial LANs.
To this end, the transport of Ethernet traffic is required, and Ethernet transport has been specified within the release 15 standard of the 5G system. As part of the ongoing industrial transformation, the wired communication segments of industrial networks are expected to evolve toward a common open standard: Ethernet with TSN support .
Therefore, a 5G system needs to be able to integrate with a TSN-based industrial Ethernet, for which 3GPP has defined different study and work items in release 16 of the 5G standards. TSN includes the means to provide deterministic bounded latency without congestion losses for prioritized traffic on an Ethernet network that also transports traffic of lower priority. TSN features include priority queuing with resource allocation mechanisms, time synchronization between network nodes and reliability mechanisms via redundant traffic flows.
Features that are being developed in 5G standardization to support time-aware transmission across a mixed TSN-5G network are to time-align the 5G system with the TSN network and provide 5G transmission with deterministic latency. On top of URLLC performance and integration with industrial Ethernet networks, many manufacturers also require full control that is, independent of external parties of their critical OT domain connectivity in order to fulfill system availability targets.
Full control can be expressed as requirements on keeping things local:. One 5G feature that could have significant importance for manufacturing use cases is positioning. For 3GPP release 16, the objective is to achieve indoor positioning accuracies below 3m, but NR deployed in a factory environment has the technology potential to support much more precise positioning. There are several aspects which all contribute to better positioning accuracy:. In 5G release 16, a new requirement is being introduced, whereby the 5G system will be able to synchronize devices to a master clock of one or more time domains .
One reason for this is that several industrial applications require time-synchronized actions of multiple machines. This can be a collaborative common task performed by multiple industry robots, where the control of the different robots needs to be coordinated in time.
NR in release 16 will supply the capability for a base station to provide precise timing references to devices down to microsecond precision. It will also make it possible to relate this time reference to the reference clocks of one or more time domains used in an industrial system.
Security in cellular networks has matured with every generation to enable confidential communication services, user privacy, authentication of users for network access and accountability, and authentication of the network so users know they are connected to a legitimate network.
Examples include improved confidentiality of user-plane data achieved by both the encryption and integrity protection of data to prevent eavesdropping and modification as it passes through the 5G system.
With 5G, industrial networks gain additional options for device authentication supporting both SIM-based and certificate-based authentication. While cMTC addresses the critical communication needs of the manufacturing industry, mMTC, also included in 5G, is ideal for sensor communication. MBB and mMTC based on 4G and 5G provide the shop-floor connectivity required by industrial sensors, cameras, smartphones, tablets and wearables to support use cases like data acquisition, predictive maintenance, human-machine interaction and augmented reality.
Beyond factories, there are also wide-area use cases like smart logistics that will rely on the MBB and mMTC services supplied by mobile operator-provided networks. Network operators are in an excellent position to leverage their spectrum assets, wide area network infrastructure and know-how to address the needs of the manufacturing industry.
Alternatively, the solution can be deployed by the industries themselves or by third parties using leased or dedicated spectrum.
The virtualization of core network CN functions and support of control and user-plane separation enables flexible CN deployments. The CN user plane needs to be deployed in the factory, not only to provide URLLC but also high availability, local survivability, security and privacy. An easy-to-use local management system is required to monitor and manage the end-to-end connectivity, including local network infrastructure and connected devices.
The local management use cases include both software management and fault, performance and configuration management. The management system also needs to integrate with other elements of the OT systems and the industry IT systems.
A low-latency cloud infrastructure is required both for 5G network functions and industrial applications, and all pieces need to be connected using an integrated local transport infrastructure.
The integration between the 5G infrastructure and the industrial Ethernet domain extends beyond simple user-plane forwarding of Ethernet frames to include integration with the time synchronization, scheduling and resilience schemes used in the industrial Ethernet domain, using TSN features, for example.
It can connect a variety of industrial devices with different service needs, including industrial sensors, video cameras or advanced control panels with integrated augmented reality. A 5G-connected factory is based on a local 5G radio network using licensed spectrum.
It can either be provided as a service by a mobile network operator, or it can be operated standalone by a factory owner or system integrator in locally leased or dedicated spectrum.
A local core network enables low-latency connectivity, fulfilling strict requirements on availability, local survivability, data security and privacy. Further 5G enhancements provide additional value to industrial services like precise indoor positioning, and time synchronization for industrial end devices.
He joined Ericsson in and has contributed to the standardization of 3G, 4G and 5G networks. He holds a Dr-Ing. He holds an M.
This is not possible with conventional general-purpose industrial Ethernet. It supports more development methods, enabling easier implementation on a wider range of equipment and increasing the number of compatible products. As customer needs grow more diverse and advanced, there is a growing trend in manufacturing industry toward automation, reducing total cost of ownership and improving quality, together with embracing new manufacturing methods. We are seeing the global megatrends moving toward the use of the IIoT in manufacturing industry, such as Industry 4. All of these share a common goal: the creation of smart factories in which everything is connected, data is used to the fullest, and optimized manufacturing takes place autonomously. To create smart factories, essential issues include gathering real-time information from production processes, processing it and then transmitting it seamlessly to IT systems.
Boosting smart manufacturing with 5G wireless connectivity
Hailed on its initial publication as a real-world, practical handbook, the second edition of Handbook of Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Operations continues to make the same basic point: water and wastewater operators must have a basic skill set that is both wide and deep. They must be generalists, well-rounded in the sciences, cyber operations, math operations, mechanics, technical concepts, and common sense. With coverage that spans the breadth and depth of the field, the handbook explores the latest principles and technologies and provides information necessary to prepare for licensure exams. Expanded from beginning to end, this second edition provides a no-holds-barred look at current management issues and includes the latest security information for protecting public assets. It presents in-depth coverage of management aspects and security needs and a new chapter covering the basics of blueprint reading. The chapter on water and wastewater mathematics has tripled in size and now contains an additional problems and math system operational problems with solutions. The manual examines numerous real-world operating scenarios, such as the intake of raw sewage and the treatment of water via residual management, and each scenario includes a comprehensive problem-solving practice set.
The present application is based on and claims the benefit of U. Field devices are used in industries to control operation of a process such as that of an oil refinery. A field device, such as a process variable transmitter, is typically part of a process communication loop and is located in the field to measure and transmit a process variable such as pressure, flow or temperature, for example, to control room equipment. A field device such as a valve positioner can also be part of the process communication loop and controls position of a valve based upon a control signal received over the process control loop, or generated internally.
Industry 4. Fully connected factories will rely on cloud technologies, as well as connectivity based on Ethernet Time-Sensitive Networking TSN and wireless 5G radio. The fourth industrial revolution — a. In this environment, all participants and components of the processes must be able to cooperate and communicate with each other seamlessly. This Ericsson Technology Review article explains how 5G can be used effectively in the fully-connected factories of the future. It also explores how 5G can provide deterministic ultra-reliable low-latency communication URLLC to bring wireless connectivity to demanding industrial equipment, like industrial controllers and actuators. Coming 5G enhancements will provide additional value to industrial services such as precise indoor positioning, and time synchronization for industrial end devices. The goal of Industry 4.
Wireless Network Design for Emerging IIoT Applications: Reference Framework and Use Cases
The routers have been proven in a variety of applications that require industrial remote access. Try it out with our discounted promotional packages. The industrial routers are easy to integrate into the SINEMA Remote Connect management platform for remote networks — for simple, secure remote access to plants and machines. With the SCALANCE M mobile wireless routers, both stationary stations and mobile users — for example, railway and road vehicles, coastal vessels, and inland navigation vessels — can be connected to a central control and monitoring system.
The most important promise made by the proprietors of 5G wireless technology -- the telecommunications service providers, the transmission equipment makers, the antenna manufacturers, and even the server manufacturers -- is this: Once all of 5G's components are fully deployed and operational, you will not need any kind of wire or cable to deliver communications or even entertainment service to your mobile device, to any of your fixed devices HDTV, security system, smart appliances , or to your automobile. If everything works, 5G would be the optimum solution to the classic "last mile" problem: Delivering complete digital connectivity from the tip of the carrier network to the customer, without drilling another hole through the wall. Also: Should 5G be in your IT budget? The "if" in that previous sentence remains colossal. The whole point of "Gs" in wireless standards, originally, was to emphasize the ease of transition between one wireless system of delivery and a newer one -- or at least make that transition seem reasonably pain-free. Not that any transition has ever been a trip to the fair. Once complete, the 5G transition plan would constitute an overhaul of communications infrastructure unlike any other in history. Imagine if, at the close of the 19th century, the telegraph industry had come together in a joint decision to implement a staged transition to fax.
The book examines a broad range of applications, along with their design objectives and technical challenges. The coverage includes fieldbus technologies, wireless communication technologies, network architectures, and resource management and optimization for industrial networks. Discussions are also provided on industrial communication standards for both wired and wireless technologies, as well as for the Industrial Internet of Things IIoT. This unique work will be of great value to all researchers involved in industrial sensor and control networks, wireless networking, and the Internet of Things. Account Options Anmelden. Meine Mediathek Hilfe Erweiterte Buchsuche. Springer Shop Amazon. Topics and features: describes the FlexRay, CAN, and Modbus fieldbus protocols for industrial control networks, as well as the MIL-STD standard; proposes a dual fieldbus approach, incorporating both CAN and ModBus fieldbus technologies, for a ship engine distributed control system; reviews a range of industrial wireless sensor network IWSN applications, from environmental sensing and condition monitoring, to process automation; examines the wireless networking performance, design requirements, and technical limitations of IWSN applications; presents a survey of IWSN commercial solutions and service providers, and summarizes the emerging trends in this area; discusses the latest technologies and open challenges in realizing the vision of the IIoT, highlighting various applications of the IIoT in industrial domains; introduces a logistics paradigm for adopting IIoT technology on the Physical Internet. Inhalt Industrial Control Networks.
What is 5G? The business guide to next-generation wireless technology
Product Supplier News Article. When it comes to establishing robust connectivity on the manufacturing floor, choosing whether to deploy a wired or a wireless connection depends on the application and factory circumstances. Wired networks are usually the preferred choice when real-time data communication is required. Wireless networks, on the other hand, are installed in instances where it is not cost effective, or difficult to install cables. Wireless networks are used for devices or equipment that are highly mobile and need to be moved around on a frequent basis, such as for floor plan changes.
CC-Link IE TSN: Accelerate Smart Factory With TSN Technology
Manage all the materials, people, and products you depend on across the supply chain and in your plant. Cisco Connected Factory Wireless offers flexible, plantwide communications between things, machines, databases, and people on the plant floor. Creating a secure, unified, easy-to-manage industrial-wireless network cuts costs while increasing productivity and output. Factory Wireless builds on the joint Cisco and Rockwell Automation architecture, known as Converged Plantwide Ethernet CPwE , as well as our networking expertise with industrial Ethernet wired and wireless technologies.
SCALANCE M: industrial routers for IP-based networks
In telecommunication , the term outside plant has the following meanings:. The CATV industry divides its fixed assets between head end or inside plant , and outside plant.
US8390150B2 - Field device interface with network protection mechanism - Google Patents
Three important areas that manufacturers need to focus on are security, physical infrastructure and the logical topology. So many reliable, trusted and experienced sources continue to tout the many potential advantages of the Industrial Internet of Things IIoT , Industry 4. For those manufacturers embracing the concepts and preparing their plant floor network infrastructures for the coming communications onslaught, good for you. Recognize that all three are interwoven and tightly dependent on one another.
Is Your Plant Floor Capable of Connection?
Account Options Anmelden. Meine Mediathek Hilfe Erweiterte Buchsuche. Network World. Mai 36 Seiten Band 3,Nr.