NCBI Bookshelf. Fermentation is biotechnology in which desirable microorganisms are used in the production of value-added products of commercial importance. Fermentation occurs in nature in any sugar-containing mash from fruit, berries, honey, or sap tapped from palms. If left exposed in a warm atmosphere, airborne yeasts act on the sugar to convert it into alcohol and carbon dioxide.
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- Fruit Wines Move Into a Sophisticated Realm
- Fruit Wine Production Workshop
- Making Fruit & Country Wines
- Welcome to Sheppard Fruit Wines
- Pennsylvania Wines: Adding the Numbers at Winfield Winery
- The science and magic of wine-making
- Making Fruit Wine: How Much Sugar Should You Add?
- Fruit wines commercial feasibility!
- How Wine Making Processes Affect Wine
- Making Wine with Fruit (Blackberry-Raspberry-etc)
Fruit Wines Move Into a Sophisticated RealmVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Field Stone Fruit Wines
Skip to main content. Making Wine with Fruit Blackberry-Raspberry-etc. Fruit Wine Making Wine making is as simple as taking fruit juice and leaving it out in an open container and allowing wild yeast to ferment it into an alcoholic product.
This method relied on wild airborne yeast to be of such a quality that it will produce a wine you would like to drink. That may work in France or Italy, but in America I would not be comfortable with this method. The airborne yeast here is not primarily good quality wine yeast.
In this handout I will try to inform you of the basics of wine making. With these basics you should be able to go on your merry way producing the wine of your choice. Wine is normally made of 4 ingredients: water from fruit or fruit juice , sugar from the fruit or added , yeast and acid. I am including grapes in a broad category description of fruit that you may choose to use to make wine. In grape wine, you probably will not add water if the grapes are Vinefera grapes grapes grown for wine making.
All other grapes Niagara, Concord, Thompson Seedless are normally too high in acid and sometimes tannin and low in sugar content, and require you to add water and sugar to the wine to get an acceptable flavor. Most berries, apples, plums, apricots etc. The sugar quantity, acid level, and flavor vary from crop to crop, year to year. Wine is made in many different size batches by home wine makers, from 1 gallon to hundreds of gallons.
Since most home Winemakers make 5 gallon batches, that is the size batch I will talk about in these directions. Listed below is the suggested list of equipment that you need to make a 5 gallon batch of wine. The first group of items are included in our Winemaking kit. Lets get started - In this handout we will make 5 gallons of fruit wine using Blackberries or Raspberries. Approximately 20 pounds of Blackberries or 15 pounds Raspberries use only good quality fully ripe berries.
Sanitation is very important. All equipment used in making wine should be sanitized before using it. Any left over residue on your fermenters will be harmless to your wine. Sulfite solution has a fairly strong smell to it, and is an anti-oxidant, so be careful not to breath much of the aroma from the solution. You may re-use the solution as long as the solution is clear and it has not lost its aroma.
I would suggest making your solution and storing it in a 1 gallon jug for use at a moments notice. You should also use this solution to sanitize airlock, corks, etc. It is assumed in these directions that all of the equipment that you will use will be sanitized before you put it in contact with your wine. Add the sugar to about 1 gallon of boiling water to dissolve sugar. Sort through berries and throw away the poor quality berries.
Place berries in nylon straining bag inside your plastic fermenter. Tie off bag. Press or crush the berries in the bucket to release the juice. Leave the berries in the bucket. Add the hot sugar water to the berries in the bucket. Add good quality water to about the 6-gallon mark. Take a hydrometer reading and record it here. This is optional, but helpful when you want to know alcohol content. It should be about 1. Avoid sugar readings above 1. If you have an Acid test kit, test your wine and adjust it accordingly at this point.
We will test the acid for you at the store for free!! Just bring us about an 8 ounce sample after the must has been completely mixed Put the lid on the bucket with the airlock filled with sanitizing solution, and let the Potassium Bisulfite sanitize the wine.
The Potassium Bisulfite produces a gas called sulfur dioxide. This gas is normal, and will dissipate in about 24 hours. The sulfur dioxide will destroy wild yeast and bacteria in your wine in the next 12 to 18 hours, while it will not be harmful to your packaged wine yeast. Approximately 24 hours after you have added the Potassium Bisulfite, you may then add the yeast. Cut one corner of the yeast package, and pour the all of the yeast package into the wine.
Stir the yeast into the wine. Now tightly place the lid on the bucket with the airlock full of the sanitizing solution. Fermentation should start in 24 to 48 hours. You can tell that the fermentation is started by looking for foam production on top of the must, or gas bubbles coming out of the airlock if the lid is tightly sealed If your fermentation has not started within 48 hours, please call us at the store. Let the wine ferment for about days. Then siphon the wine into a sanitized glass carboy.
This separates the pulp from the wine. Throw the pulp away. The purpose of this racking transferring the wine into a different container is called racking and all other racking is to separate the sediment from the wine, since the sediment can cause some off flavors, and of course causes cloudiness.
Let the wine ferment for about another 10 - 15 days. The fermentation should slow during this time to a near stop. Rack a third time. Your wine should be stopped fermenting or very near stopped. You may take a hydrometer reading while racking to see how far the sugar level has dropped at this time.
If the reading is 1. Try to rack your wine with a minimum of splashing from this point on. Remember that oxygen is your enemy from now until you drink your wine. The Potassium Bisulfite is added at this time as an anti-oxidant, to minimize browning, promote clarity and as a preservative.
The Potassium Sorbate is added to prevent any additional fermentation in the bottle that would cause carbonation or to push the cork out of the bottle. Your wine should taste pretty close to the final product by now. It is very common for the wine to have an ending specific gravity of. This is often too dry tasting for most people, since they would like a sweeter wine.
The solution is to add sweetness back in at this time. The potassium sorbate you added in the previous step allows you to add more cane sugar avoid corn sugar for sweetening , and not have it be fermented by the yeast. You can add boiled and cooled sugar water at this time.
I cannot tell you how sweet you like your wine, so I also cannot tell you how much sugar to add. You can add more later if you would like. The idea here is to add a little at a time, taste the wine, and then add more if you feel it is not enough.
Experience has taught me that it is best to have a friend help you tasting for sweetness. Patience is valuable here. You can determine your alcohol content now if you subtract your ending gravity from your original gravity and multiply the difference by. Multiply 90 X. Let your wine set in a quiet place to clarify. This may take a few weeks, to a few months. Time is your friend here. Just keep the wine out of direct sunlight, and keep oxygen contact to a minimum.
This is up to you, as it is a compromise. Too much water added will dilute the wine flavors; too much oxygen contact can cause loss of flavor.
If your wine is not clarifying, as you would like it to, you can add DualFine at this time, or filter your wine. You may want to call to ask about your options here. Once your wine is properly sweetened and clarified, you should bottle it. Corks come in 3 sizes. Number 7, 8 and 9. The smaller the number the smaller the cork. The general rule is larger corks for longer aging. Transfer your wine quietly, with a minimum of aeration.
Immediately put the cork in, and stand upright for about 5 days to let the cork dry out and form a seal. Then set the bottle on its side or upside down to keep the cork moist and sealed. Age your wine as you wish and drink when you want!! Most wine will improve with age, but many factors are involved here.
In general, higher alcohol levels, higher acid levels, and higher tannin levels require more aging, and taste better older.
Fruit wines are fermented alcoholic beverages made from a variety of base ingredients other than grapes ; they may also have additional flavors taken from fruits, flowers, and herbs. This definition is sometimes broadened to include any fermented alcoholic beverage except beer. For historical reasons, mead , cider , and perry are also excluded from the definition of fruit wine. Fruit wines have traditionally been popular with home winemakers and in areas with cool climates such as North America and Scandinavia; in East Africa, India, and the Philippines, wine is made from bananas. Fruit wines are usually referred to by their main ingredient e. In the European Union, wine is legally defined as the fermented juice of grapes.
Fruit Wine Production Workshop
Making fruit wines can be economically rewarding. A certain segment of the population enjoys these wines. A winemaker can produce high quality fruit wines as a specialty product and benefit from this existing niche in the marketplace. Compared to grape wines most of the fruit wines take less time to process and, therefore; the capital is tied up for a shorter period of time. This translates into a quicker return on invested capital.
Making Fruit & Country Wines
Besides regional differences in grapes, there are several things people do in the cellar to make better wine. Aging wine in oak is perhaps the most well known wine making technique but there are many more. You may come across these terms the next time you visit a winery. The moment the grapes are picked is a pretty big deal. It is probably the most important thing a winemaker can do to ensure that they make awesome wine. Picking earlier will produce wines with higher acidity, lower alcohol and perhaps more green flavors and aromas. It could also lend to more bitter tannin. Picking later in the harvest season will produce wines with lower acidity, higher alcohol or sweetness and more subdued tannin. This could be why many commercial wines have identical ABV levels of
Welcome to Sheppard Fruit Wines
Wine is produced in areas where grape, tree fruit or berries grow. The alcohol in wine creates demand for the product. Wine production began about 8, year ago. Today 60 countries produce over billion gallons of wine a year.
No surprise, except that not a grape is being poured. And in Connecticut they constitute a modest trend. In the last few years, some half-dozen farms and wineries have begun producing fruit wines to measurable success, capitalizing on shifts in tastes and generational preferences, not to mention what grows best in their own backyards. The winery opened in , but the farm has been producing cider since the s, so the owners already knew a thing or two about making the juice required for fruit wine. Farm wine designation now requires that only 25 percent of the fruit be grown by the winery owner, down from 51 percent. It allows the sale of wine by the glass and of wine produced by other farm wineries in the state. Wayne Stitzer , a Connecticut-based winemaking consultant who helped school Mr. Bishop on the vagaries of fruit fermentation, flavor blending and aging, said he was getting far more requests for assistance with fruit wines than when he began his business 11 years ago — a trend confirmed nationally by Michael Kaiser, director of communications for the trade group Wine America , who said anecdotal information showed that fruit wines seemed to be catching on most in the Midwest and on the East Coast, both of which are prime growing regions for fruits other than grapes.
Pennsylvania Wines: Adding the Numbers at Winfield Winery
In the past, wine made from New York state fruit, like strawberries, apples, cherries and peaches, and vegetables, like rhubarb, has been considered the ugly step-child of winemaking. That was then. This is now: Thanks to new Cornell University research, full, robust-flavor fruit or vegetable wines could be available on a wider basis. Robert Kime, food science pilot plant manager at Cornell's New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, believes he has found the alcohol-content threshold that separates fine fruit wine from cheap, inferior wine -- what the British call "plonk. Kime, who has worked with a number of wineries in the New York Finger Lakes region, notes that winemakers invariably sacrifice flavor by making fruit wine with the same alcohol content as wine made from grapes. Grape wine can have an alcohol content as high as 11 or 12 percent and still be excellent. However, Kime says, alcohol is a solvent that can react with and dissolve flavor compounds in other fruits and vegetables when it reaches levels of 11 percent or higher.
The science and magic of wine-making
But a successful research program is more than a shiny building with the latest technological trappings; it requires cohesive effort between industry and researchers, is guided by industry stakeholders and managed professionally, has clear priorities and is well funded and communicated. All of these components are contained in the Strategic Research Plan for the Washington Wine Industry, a page document based on direct input from the industry and developed for the Wine Commission by Consultants. Major goals of the plan are to establish the research process, define the research focus, create the research structure, sustainably fund research and share research findings. I joined the Wine Commission last November after spending nearly 20 years writing technical grape and tree fruit stories as associate editor for Good Fruit Grower. Previously, I was the first research director for the California Table Grape Commission and helped build their research program. My technical communication skills and research management background will be valuable as I implement the goals of the strategic research plan.
Making Fruit Wine: How Much Sugar Should You Add?
It seems as though when we think of home wine making, we think of grapes. Walk into your local liquor store. The racks are filled with countless wines produced from Pinot Noir, Zinfandel, Cabernet and other notable grapes.
Fruit wines commercial feasibility!
Bender in Drink. Many ingredients can be gathered for free or can be easily grown in a summer garden.
How Wine Making Processes Affect Wine
Functional foods are foods that provide positive health effects apart from the provision of essential nutrients. Along with nutraceuticals, they represent the top trends in the food industry.
Making Wine with Fruit (Blackberry-Raspberry-etc)
Ecclesiasticus I grew up on tales of my Dad's s homemade hedgerow wines. Their fruity aroma and potency were legendary. All that remains of this heady era are five very dusty bottles of "vintage" wine sitting in my father's garage.