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- The Potential of Prefab: How Modular Construction Can Be Green
- Lumber-Based Mass Timber Products in Construction
- Housing Company
- Modular Construction: A Housing Affordability Game-Changer?
- Low-rise residential buildings
- Modular building
- Legrand Live
- Modern building practices
- Building the Housing of the Future
The Potential of Prefab: How Modular Construction Can Be GreenVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Can You Build a House With Hemp? - National Geographic
This chapter provides information related to commonly used wood construction methods i. It briefly discusses the manufacturing of four major lumber-based mass timber products i. The discussion also addresses primary lumber products, such as dimension lumber, machine stress-rated lumber, and finger-joined lumber, which are the building blocks from which mass timber products are manufactured. Advantages of using wood in construction are illustrated by examples largely from North American practices.
The life cycle assessment concept is also introduced. Timber Buildings and Sustainability. Prior to the availability of rolled steel and reinforced concrete, wood was the primary structural material in North America and other timber-rich regions of the world [ 1 ]. However, the raw material resources keep changing in more recent times, e. This has permitted economic construction of residential and nonresidential buildings, bridges, and industrial structures. From a technical perspective, modern EWP commonly provide better and more predictable physical and mechanical properties than traditional wood products, such as more uniform structure, greater dimensional stability, greater strength, and stiffness.
Initially, much development of EWP was focused on creating substitute products capable of replacing small dimension sawn lumber and boards as primary elements in light-frame building superstructures; but in recent decades, much attention has been switched to creation of mass timber products MTP. The term MTP describes a family of EWP of large section size that offers the construction industry a viable alternative to use structural steel and reinforced concrete [ 3 ].
SCL refers to products manufactured by layering dried and graded wood veneers or strands bonded together by moisture-resistant adhesive into panel-like products of a width of up to 2. In principle, SCL is only limited in width and length by transportation considerations.
Use of terms in the literature can be colloquial, with timber-concrete composite TCC and other hybrid elements sometimes grouped into the meaning of MTP. Overall, MTP offers architects and builders many opportunities to express their concepts creatively, while satisfying various technical performance requirements applicable to engineered structures of many types [ 4 ]. This chapter places emphasis on the types of lumber-based MTP illustrated in Figure 1. Figure 2 illustrates three types of wood construction methods, namely light-frame, post-and-beam, and mass timber.
Dimension lumber is used for framing members and plywood or OSB for sheathing materials. Light-frame construction is an economical choice for the construction of low- and mid-rise buildings, which makes use of dimension lumber in a range of grades and dimensions [ 7 ]. Light-frame wood structures can be also used for shopping centers, plazas, service and maintenance buildings, and institutional and municipal facilities. Prefabrication of components such as wall and roof panels, even complete homes or office units are efficient extensions of this framing technique [ 7 ].
However, the structural system of a light-frame building is not well-defined, resulting in much redundancy. Design of a light-frame building often only includes architects unless the building is large. Wood building construction methods.
Traditionally, posts and beams were made of large solid timbers, which were connected with mortise and tenon joints locked into place with hardwood pegs, with diagonal braces for stabilization of a structure [ 7 ].
The post-and-beam construction is commonly used to construct custom-designed homes, commercial buildings, recreation centers, and industrial structures, for reasons of ease of fabrication and consequent economy [ 7 ]. Unlike the light-frame construction, the structural system of a post-and-beam building is well-defined and engineered, generating very limited or no redundancy.
Design of a post-and-beam building is usually formal, involving both architects and engineers, especially if the building is relatively large. Hybrid post-and-beam and light-frame construction features the exposed heavy timber components, but allows insulation to be placed in the wall space, with finishes applied to both the inner and outer faces of the studs [ 7 ].
Mass timber construction complements traditional light-frame and post-and-beam construction methods due to emergence of various types of MTPs, Figure 2—bottom. It creates single or multiple material hybrid superstructures for building and other structures. Since beams are not always required, new technology and terminology, such as post-and-panel construction, have emerged.
What codes and standards permit architects and engineers to do is not yet uniform; but in the broad sense, construction codes and standards in various countries have transitioned, or are transitioning, away from prescriptive provisions to performance-based provisions in a manner that enables greater use of EWP, including MTP. Most important in this respect is the revision of fire performance provisions related to buildings [ 4 , 6 ].
Mass timber systems are widely reported to be cost-competitive, carbon-efficient, sustainable and reliable, which stem from the scientific data generated from full-scale fire, seismic, durability, acoustic, and vibration tests being conducted internationally by researchers and engineers [ 3 , 4 ]. It is now reasonable to claim that the use of EWP and MTP has the same level of supporting technical understanding as that underpinning any other major class of construction material.
Latter sections of this chapter demonstrate the use of MTP as parts of high-performance buildings meeting needs of society and occupants. Lumber is a manufactured product derived from logs, including boards elements with limited thickness , dimension lumber elements with relatively small section dimensions , and timbers elements with relatively large section dimensions. Dimension lumber is widely used in light-frame construction, which is categorized into four groups in the Canadian practice: structural light framing, structural joists and planks, light framing, and studs.
Dimension lumber is usually graded by visual inspection in terms of appearance characteristics, such as knots and slope of grain. For example, the grades of dimension lumber used for structural light framing construction are Select Structural SS , No.
It should be noted that there is not a strength difference between No. Therefore, the product mix of No. Alternatively, dimension lumber can be mechanically evaluated and sorted into grades using so-called machine stress-rated MSR lumber or machine-evaluated lumber MEL [ 6 ].
The MSR machine is widely used in wood industry to nondestructively test each piece of dimension lumber to determine its stiffness so that it can be assigned a permitted design stress based on the established relationship between the stiffness and bending strength.
Uses of dimension lumber and timbers widely range with differences in whether the former or latter is suitable depending on the type of structural system, and performance requirements applicable to a structural system. In general, dimension lumber is used in systems where multiple parallelly arranged elements act together to resist effects of particular structural design loads. Timbers, on the other hand, can be used in situations where multiple elements or a single element is designed to resist effects of particular structural design loads.
Another important difference is that dimension lumber elements must always be protected from effects of design fire situations; whereas, depending on specifics of a situation, timbers may not require such protection.
Finger-joints are commonly used to join short pieces of lumber together to make longer pieces. The joint profile governs the strength of a joint, and is defined by the finger length, tip thickness, tip gap, and finger pitch, slope, and depth. For example, a mm-long finger joint is commonly used Figure 3—left. Also, it is noted that cutting out strength reducing features like large knots then finger joining lumber is a highly effective way of upgrading properties of dimension lumber, increasing value, and enabling higher value uses like creation of high-performance MTP [ 6 ].
Another advantage of finger joining lumber is that it increases dimensional stability under changing environmental conditions prior to or after installation of lumber in structures. Adhesives used in finger-joints are usually phenol-resorcinol formaldehyde for lumber products intended for general applications or incorporated in GLT elements, or polyvinyl acetate for lumber products used as studs [ 6 ].
Two finger joint profiles left: mm long; right: mm long used for joining short pieces of lumber. GLT also widely known as glulam is a structural product composed of multiple pieces of finger-joined dimension lumber, or other types of EWP, adhesively face-to-face bonded to create a desired form. GLT was first used in Europe in the early s.
A patent from Switzerland signaled the true beginning of GLT construction [ 9 ]. A significant development in the GLT industry was the introduction of fully water-resistant phenol-resorcinol adhesives in , which allowed GLT to be used in exposed exterior environments without concern of glueline degradation [ 9 ].
The manufacturing of GLT is deemed as a one-dimension additive process. The grain of all laminations runs parallel with the lengths of straight members, Figure 4. Each lamination is visually inspected based on both faces of the piece, and then assigned one of four grades: B-F, B, D, or C [ 7 ], in which B-F indicates the highest grade and C the lowest grade.
Laminations of higher grades are used in the top and bottom portions of a GLT beam, Figure 5 , where bending stress is greatest. Specified laminations are also nondestructively graded by machine before assembly to meet both visual and stiffness requirements for particular grades of GLT. Sometimes layers of other materials, such as glass fibers, are incorporated among lumber laminations to add strength or stiffness or to locally reinforce GLT [ 10 ].
Durable cold-setting waterproof-structural adhesives are used, such as phenol formaldehyde and phenol-resorcinol formaldehyde [ 7 ]. Because finger-joined lumber is employed, dimensions of GLT members are in principle only limited by manufacturing and transportation capabilities of a manufacturer.
Those capabilities are highly variable, with the most advanced involving fully automated manufacturing processes based on advanced integrated design and manufacturing methods.
The automated processes can include robot handling of materials and elements from the arrival of logs at a manufacturing plant to installation of elements at a construction site. GLT is commonly used as beams and columns Figure 4—left and middle , but can be also used as flexural members Figure 4—right. Usually, GLT is used in dry service conditions or is protected in some way if used under outdoor conditions.
GLT members with laminations suiting resistance of bending forces: Upper—Member with a balanced layup intended to maximize material use when the member is loaded in tension on both top and bottom faces EX grade under Canadian system , and Lower—Member with an unbalanced layup intended to maximize material use when the member is loaded in tension on the bottom face E grade under Canadian system. Design stiffness and strength properties of GLT of a given grade are calculated based on engineering properties of the laminations using equivalent linear elastic mechanics theories.
A wide range of GLT grades are available with some involving deliberate placements of laminations of different grades to achieve the design properties of GLT elements suited to their particular applications [ 11 ]. In general, there are two grade categories for GLT, stress grade and appearance grade [ 7 ]. The former defines specified strengths of a GLT member, and the latter the quality of finish on the exposed surfaces of the member.
For example, some grades suit uses of GLT elements as beams, columns or tension members, Figures 6 , 7 , 8. Within those designations, numbers 20 and 24 are indicative of the associated specified design strength in bending. E indicates that associated grade properties apply to elements without an inflection in their deformed shapes, with the proviso faces intended to be stressed in tension are correctly oriented.
EX indicates that associated grade properties apply to elements with inflections in their deformed shapes. Similar approaches are adopted by other international standards which define rules for engineering design of timber structures. Source: Photos obtained from Lefebvre and Richard . NLT is manufactured with dimension lumber laminations, stacked on edges, and fastened with nails, to create large-flat structural components, Figure 9.
Spikes and screws are sometimes used as well. In addition, NLT has been used to create deck and diaphragm elements of bridges and buildings for centuries [ 6 ]. Single laminations are commonly employed if the length of prefabricated panels is less than 6 m [ 14 ]. The spliced laminations of specific pattern [ 11 , 14 ] or finger joined lumber laminations [ 14 ] are used if longer panels are required.
For example, mm-long nails should be used to fasten mm-thick laminations, and mm-long nails for mm-thick laminations. Such requirements are based on practical experience and ensure integrity of NLT in various end use situations. The drawbacks of using NLT are its slow fabrication process and after-fabrication machining problem due to existence of nails.
In North America, many timber decks of rural bridges constructed from s through the mids were made of NLT [ 15 ]. Mostly, the NLT was oriented so the lumber laminations were transverse to the bridge span and supported by bridge girders, but for short bridges lumber laminations were sometimes orientated parallel to the span [ 15 ], Figure Another common traditional use of NLT is in floors of industrial and commercial buildings. The reasons for choosing NLT are as follows: it is well suited to onsite fabrication; it is capable because of the nails of absorbing energy damping vibrations caused by transient or sustained dynamic force e.
Disadvantages of NLT include that it is not particularly mechanically efficient if NLT elements are required to have high rigidity when loaded in-plane or as flexural elements, also there have been durability issues associated in particular with bridge applications.
The disadvantages stem from the flexibility of nailed interconnections between laminations, and proneness to gaps to form at those interconnections e. Recently, use of NLT has undergone resurgence as part of the modern mass timber movement in buildings [ 3 , 4 ], Figure
We conduct business based on the principle of providing environmentally-friendly housing for safe and comfortable living for at least 60 years. Our sophisticated construction methods allow us to build at plants in short periods of time, and achieve houses with performances exactly as designed. The combined strengths of the group meet all needs in the real estate business, including buying and selling agency services, apartment and condominium management and guarantee. We supply buildings and services to suit every life stage, elderly housing with supportive services. We supply valuable housing designed to meet local needs.
Lumber-Based Mass Timber Products in Construction
This section deals with family houses in Central Europe and demonstrates the influence of different construction types and material mixes on the environmental impacts. It is well known that building styles worldwide differ from each other and even in Europe there are considerable differences form, size, material mix in standard family houses. To illustrate the impact of material selection, the following house types were investigated:. The share of wood and wood-based materials is relatively high. The share of mineral-based materials is extremely low.
This chapter provides information related to commonly used wood construction methods i. It briefly discusses the manufacturing of four major lumber-based mass timber products i. The discussion also addresses primary lumber products, such as dimension lumber, machine stress-rated lumber, and finger-joined lumber, which are the building blocks from which mass timber products are manufactured. Advantages of using wood in construction are illustrated by examples largely from North American practices.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Process of Building Japanese Wooden House Construction Start To Finish
Simple, economical and ecological houses. Whether you are a social housing landlord, a community, an investor, a housing promoter or an individual, the construction of a modular positive energy home is attractive, no matter which way you look at it. Durable, scalable , and efficient on thermal and accoustic levels, our realizations guarantee optimal comfort and well-being as well as appreciable energy savings. An important pitch to which future tenants or buyers are more and more sensitive. The wooden Brikawood brick is a constructive assembly system made of wood and requires neither nails, screws nor glue to assemble, like a game of logic and intuition. Everything was thought out for sustainable developement : from the conception of the brick itself Brick , the optimisation of raw materials such as insulation, the assembly system of the house walls, right down to the industrialised production procedure and the training of the staff…. As maker of innovative products in construction leader of industrialised modular construction , Brikawood relies on the same constructive 3D dry wall procedure to create quality, economical and ecological housing projects in record time 2 to 3 times quicker than conventional construction.
Modular Construction: A Housing Affordability Game-Changer?
Photo by Dan Bertolet, used with permission. Building in Cascadia is expensive. Labor is scarce, and rents have surged since the last recession. Firms like Blokable , Katerra , and OneBuild say that by moving much of the process off building sites and onto factory floors, they can cut the cost of constructing multifamily housing by over half.
Think of the word home , and you may conjure up an image of a cozy bungalow, high-rise condo, or tidy garden apartment. But the concept of a home is changing, and so is the way that homes are constructed. The abode that people equate with comfort, safety, and family is being transformed into something new by a confluence of factors. Around the world, the industry is building new forms of housing that are affordable, shared, ecofriendly, flexible, stylish, or healthy. The indicators of future demand in our study suggest that the portion of new units represented by futuristic housing forms will continue to increase over the next dozen years. For that to happen, building owners, real estate developers, contractors, and building materials manufacturers must transform the ways they do business. Among other things, they must act early to secure property in desirable areas and use modern construction and building technologies to provide the types of dwelling units that people want to live in. They will also need to use digital tools for just about all their tasks, including to obtain financing and to improve communications with end customers. If they manage to accomplish this, then they may retain or advance their current competitive standing. Otherwise, they risk being left behind. See Exhibit 1.
Low-rise residential buildings
Buildings, like all economic products, command a range of unit prices based on their cost of production and their value to the consumer. In aggregate , the total annual value of building construction in the various national economies is substantial. In in the United States , for example, it was about 10 percent of the gross domestic product , a proportion that is roughly applicable for the world economy as a whole. In spite of these large aggregate values, the unit cost of buildings is quite low when compared to other products. The lowest costs are for simple pre-engineered metal buildings, and the highest represent functionally complex buildings with many mechanical and electrical services, such as hospitals and laboratories. These unit costs are at the low end of the scale of manufactures, ranking with inexpensive foodstuffs, and are lower than those of most other familiar consumer products. This scale of cost is a rough index of the value or utility of the commodity to society. Food, although essential, is relatively easy to produce; aircraft, at the high end of the scale, perform a desirable function but do so with complex and expensive mechanisms that command much higher unit prices which reflect not only the materials and labour required to produce them but also substantial capital and research investments.
This is due in large part to the interrelated issues of the rising costs of traditional construction methods, the shortage of skilled construction labor in many areas of the country, and the worsening shortage of affordable housing. Some in the industry think that modular construction could be an effective strategy for addressing these issues. Based on research conducted by McGraw-Hill Construction , modular construction has been shown, in a majority of cases, to result in a higher-quality building delivered in a shorter time frame with more predictable costs. But does modular construction also have the potential to help the building industry meet its ever-more-ambitious and increasingly urgent sustainability goals? Proponents of modular construction believe it does, arguing that it can deliver greater environmental and social sustainability benefits than conventional construction can. Common claims for the sustainability benefits of modular construction include:. This report will examine these and other potential benefits in depth in order to provide the foundational knowledge and integrative understanding needed to realize these benefits through effective design and project management. Although there is a lot of enthusiasm around modular construction approaches, a significant number of modular projects have encountered serious difficulties, for example around such things as transportation and weather protection. One recent, well publicized case of the potentially disastrously expensive results of modular construction poorly implemented especially on large, ambitious projects is Dean Street in Brooklyn, which, among other issues, required a significant amount of rework due to water damage. This led to both a huge delay in completion time and a substantial cost overrun.
Modular buildings and modular homes are prefabricated buildings or houses that consist of repeated sections called modules. Installation of the prefabricated sections is completed on site. Prefabricated sections are sometimes placed using a crane.
Modern building practices
Every building material comes with an environmental cost of some sort. However, some principles can help guide your choice of sustainable materials and construction systems.
Building the Housing of the Future
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