Optics , science concerned with the genesis and propagation of light , the changes that it undergoes and produces, and other phenomena closely associated with it. There are two major branches of optics, physical and geometrical. Physical optics deals primarily with the nature and properties of light itself. Geometrical optics has to do with the principles that govern the image-forming properties of lenses, mirrors, and other devices that make use of light.
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- Optical Goods
- Optical Distribution Network
- Passive optical network
- RAMON - Reference And Management Of Nomenclatures
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- Optical and digital microscopic imaging techniques and applications in pathology
- How to Calculate Overall Equipment Effectiveness: A Practical Guide
Optical GoodsVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Optical Instruments
Includes growing of potatoes, jams, sweet potatoes or cassava; hop cones, chicory roots or roots and tubers with a high starch or insulin content; growing of seeds of a kind used for sowing, growing of forage plants including grasses and of crops. Processing by independent units is classified under 23 Growing of coffee or cocoa beans 24 Growing of rubber trees; harvesting of latex and treatment of the liquid latex on the plantation for the purpose of transport or preservation 25 Growing of fruit crops including setting up and maintenance of orchard; activities incidental to growing of fruit crops 26 Growing of edible nuts including coconuts 27 Growing of spice crops including: spice leaves e.
Also includes growing of betel leaves 29 Growing of any other plantation crops, n. Activities relating to raising a crop, promoting its growth or protecting it from disease and insects spraying operations etc.
Transplantation of paddy in paddy fields. Horticultural and nursery services. Harvesting and activities related to harvesting, such as preparation of crop by cleaning, trimming, grading, drying, decorticating, retting, cooling or bulk packaging.
Includes cotton picking agro-based service centres like grading of agricultural products etc. Animal husbandry service: Activities to promote propagation, growth and output of animals and to obtain animal products: artificial insemination, herd testing, poultry caponizing, coop cleaning, dung gathering etc.
Sheep dipping and shearing, egg cleaning and grading, animal skinning and related activities. Skip to main content. Search the Website Search. Growing of tabacco, including its preliminary processing in the farm.
Growing of flowers Floriculture , horticultural specialties and nursery products. Growing of plants used chiefly in pharmacy medicinal plants or for insecticide, fungicidal or similar purposes Includes growing of opium and ganja.
Growing of other crops, n. Processing by independent units is classified under Growing of rubber trees; harvesting of latex and treatment of the liquid latex on the plantation for the purpose of transport or preservation. Growing of fruit crops including setting up and maintenance of orchard; activities incidental to growing of fruit crops.
Growing of spice crops including: spice leaves e. Also includes growing of betel leaves. Farm Machinery and implements: Purchase of tractors, harvester, transplanters, pumpsets etc. Construction of pump houses, cattle sheds, poultry sheds etc. Storage and marketing of Agriculture produce- including loans for construction and running of storage facilities warehouses, godowns, silos and cold storages in the producing areas.
Culturing microorganism for agriculture related purpose, Bio-fertilizers, vermiculture etc. Credit advanced to Bio-gas plant should be indicated against Code and not here. Indirect Finance to Agriculture Excluding the following categories. Distribution of fertilizers and pesticides Wholesale Code Distribution of fertilizers and pesticides Retail sale Code Co-operative Marketing Societies and Co-operatives of producers code Dairying: -Including Cattle including yak and buffalo breeding, rearing and ranching etc.
Rearing of goats, production of milk ; sheep, production of shorn wool; horses, camels, mules and other pack animals. Raising of poultry including broiler and other domesticated birds; production of eggs and operation of poultry hatcheries. Raising of pigs and swine; Farming of rabbits including angora rabbits; Raising of bees including production of honey; Raising of silk worms including production of silk worm cocoons; sericulture.
Other animal farming n. Growing of crops combined with farming of animals mixed farming. Mixed cropping or mixed livestock units are classified according to their main activity ]. Biotechnology including tissue culture services related to Agriculture. Soil conservation services, including soil testing and soil desalination services.
Veterinary services to be coded under code Growing of standing timber: planting, replanting, transplanting, thinning and conserving of forests and timber tracts; Social Forestry; Operation of tree nurseries; Logging: logging camps and loggers primarily engaged in felling timber and producing wood in the rough form.
Gathering of tendu leaves and other wild growing forest materials. Forestry service activities: timber cruising, timber evaluation, fire fighting and forest management including aforestation and reforestation; Logging service activities: transport of logs in association with logging chiefly within the forest.
Division Fishing, operation of fish hatcheries and fish farms and service. Aquaculture, Fishing including gathering of marine materials , operation of fish hatcheries and fish farms; service activities incidental to fishing.
Division Extraction of crude petroleum and natural gas and related service. Division Manufacture of Wearing apparel; dressing and dyeing of fur. Division Manufacture of wood and products of wood and cork except. Division Publishing, Printing and Reproduction of recorded media. Division Manufacture of fabricated Metal products, except machinery and.
Division Manufacture of Office, accounting and computing machinery. Division Manufacture of Electrical machinery and apparatus n. Division 32 Manufacture of Radio, Television and Communication equipment.
Division 33 : Manufacture of Medical, precision and optical instruments, watches.
Optical Power The most basic fiber optic measurement is optical power from the end of a fiber. This measurement is the basis for loss measurements as well as the power from a source or presented at a receiver. Typically both transmitters and receivers have receptacles for fiber optic connectors, so measuring the power of a transmitter is done by attaching a test cable to the source and measuring the power at the other end. For receivers, one disconnects the cable attached to the receiver receptacle and measures the output with the meter. While optical power meters are the primary power measurement instrument, optical loss test sets OLTSs and optical time domain reflectometers OTDRs also measure power in testing loss.
Optical Distribution Network
We should consider the product composition on trade cost intensity and domestic value-added reseller DVAR , and reduce trade costs in order to promote the export of products with higher domestic value-added rate, and to realize the substantial transformation of foreign trade growth mode. Trade structure is an eternal topic in the theory of international trade. But the trade structure is still not perfect with the high proportion of processing trade that reflects the vertical division as the outstanding characteristic. The proportion of processing trade in the total trade volume in and was To promote the export, especially the goods of higher added value, is the essential requirement of our country to accelerate the transformation of trade development model. The trade cost is the sum of all costs incurred from the beginning of production to the final consumption except the production cost Anderson and Wincoop
Passive optical network
A passive optical network PON is a fiber-optic telecommunications technology for delivering broadband network access to end-customers. Its architecture implements a point-to-multipoint topology, in which a single optical fiber serves multiple endpoints by using unpowered passive fiber optic splitters to divide the fiber bandwidth among multiple access points. Passive optical networks are often referred to as the " last mile " between an Internet service provider ISP and its customers. A passive optical network consists of an optical line terminal OLT at the service provider's central office hub and a number of optical network units ONUs or optical network terminals ONTs , near end users. A PON reduces the amount of fiber and central office equipment required compared with point-to-point architectures. A passive optical network is a form of fiber-optic access network.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Metrology at Edmund Optics: Measuring as a Key Component of Manufacturing
To facilitate this sharing, two main elements are added into the fiber distribution network: the optical line terminal OLT and the optical network unit ONU. The cable is white and unlabelled which makes it an optimal choice for use in modern and contemporary homes. The aim of the work reported is the unambiguous comparison in terms of dissipated power between the optical and electrical clock distribution networks. Recent price increases have seen the cost of entry level scopes rise dramatically, making it difficult to find a quality scope with mounts that allows you to generate a margin on entry level Air Gun and Rimfire packages. This compensation may impact how and where products appear on this site including, for example, the order in which they appear. This hierarchical approach is characteristic of communications networks, with different architectures and technologies in the access, metro and core long-haul regimes, driven by different distance scales, traffic patterns and cost considerations. It has previously been shown to operate alongside classical communication in. It integrates fiber splicing, splitting, distribution, storage and cable connection in one unit. Mainly designed to reduce optical signal strength, the product has found uses in telecommunications networks, computer networks, broadband networks, optical fiber distribution frames.
RAMON - Reference And Management Of Nomenclatures
Includes growing of potatoes, jams, sweet potatoes or cassava; hop cones, chicory roots or roots and tubers with a high starch or insulin content; growing of seeds of a kind used for sowing, growing of forage plants including grasses and of crops. Processing by independent units is classified under 23 Growing of coffee or cocoa beans 24 Growing of rubber trees; harvesting of latex and treatment of the liquid latex on the plantation for the purpose of transport or preservation 25 Growing of fruit crops including setting up and maintenance of orchard; activities incidental to growing of fruit crops 26 Growing of edible nuts including coconuts 27 Growing of spice crops including: spice leaves e. Also includes growing of betel leaves 29 Growing of any other plantation crops, n. Activities relating to raising a crop, promoting its growth or protecting it from disease and insects spraying operations etc.
The core component of any optical device is a lens that changes the direction of rays of light. Positive lenses that resemble parentheses face to face— —cause rays of light to converge to a focus. Negative lenses— —cause rays to diffuse, to spread apart. This comes about because light slows as it passes through a dense but translucent medium, like glass or plastic and, in slowing, a ray will refract or bend. This behavior of light is exploited by optical instruments for all kinds of purposes, which makes optical goods so useful and so widely applied. Light, of course, is just one type of radiating energy, part of the electromagnetic spectrum. The entire spectrum begins with extremely energetic waves of radiation known as gamma-rays. Next in order are X-rays, ultraviolet light, our own visible light, infra-red light, microwaves, radio and television waves, and finally so-called long-waves. All of these types of radiating energy are propagated in a straight line in a wave form; they have peaks and valleys.
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Luminogenic materials with aggregation-induced emission AIE attributes have attracted much interest since the debut of the AIE concept in In this critical review , recent progress in the area of AIE research is summarized. Typical examples of AIE systems are discussed, from which their structure—property relationships are derived. Through mechanistic decipherment of the photophysical processes, structural design strategies for generating new AIE luminogens are developed. Technological, especially optoelectronic and biological, applications of the AIE systems are exemplified to illustrate how the novel AIE effect can be utilized for high-tech innovations references. The article was received on 26 Apr and first published on 29 Jul If you are not the author of this article and you wish to reproduce material from it in a third party non-RSC publication you must formally request permission using Copyright Clearance Center. Go to our Instructions for using Copyright Clearance Center page for details. Authors contributing to RSC publications journal articles, books or book chapters do not need to formally request permission to reproduce material contained in this article provided that the correct acknowledgement is given with the reproduced material.
Optical and digital microscopic imaging techniques and applications in pathology
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Modern manufacturing is being revolutionized by the use of optics, which can both improve current manufacturing capabilities and enable new ones. Light can be used to process or probe materials remotely, even through windows isolating harsh or vacuum environments. With no surface contact, there is no contamination of the process by the probe beam and no wear of tool edges. Scanning provides action over large areas. Light can be used to induce photochemistry, for example, in photolithography to produce submicron features in thin films of photoresist or in rapid prototyping where liquid polymers are solidified by lasers to form a three-dimensional piece from a computer-aided design database. Light can cast images, making it possible to inspect a part or use the image to guide the working tool to the correct area of the work-piece. Images of the surface topology can be compared to the topology of the ''perfect" image captured in a database or the topology of an identical piece to ensure consistent component fabrication. For these many reasons, optics has reached into every aspect of manufacturing and promises to increase in use with improvements in speed, control, precision, and accuracy.
How to Calculate Overall Equipment Effectiveness: A Practical Guide
There is a lot of confusion out there about OEE Operational Equipment Effectiveness and about the words efficiency and effectiveness. Let us look at these things in an objective and clear manner. Is OEE just a nice-to-have? No, it is a simple yet powerful roadmap that helps production floor people and management to visualize and eliminate equipment losses and waste.
There is a lot of confusion out there about OEE Operational Equipment Effectiveness and about the words efficiency and effectiveness. Let us look at these things in an objective and clear manner.
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The conventional optical microscope has been the primary tool in assisting pathological examinations. The modern digital pathology combines the power of microscopy, electronic detection, and computerized analysis. It enables cellular-, molecular-, and genetic-imaging at high efficiency and accuracy to facilitate clinical screening and diagnosis. This paper first reviews the fundamental concepts of microscopic imaging and introduces the technical features and associated clinical applications of optical microscopes, electron microscopes, scanning tunnel microscopes, and fluorescence microscopes.