Digital technologies are everywhere, affecting the way we live, work, travel and play. Digitalisation is helping improve the safety, productivity, accessibility and sustainability of energy systems around the world. But it is also raising new security and privacy risks, while disrupting markets, businesses and workers. The report examines the impact of digital technologies on energy demand sectors, looks at how energy suppliers can use digital tools to improve operations, and explores the transformational potential of digitalisation to help create a highly interconnected energy system. This report seeks to provide greater clarity to decision makers in government and industry on what digitalisation means for energy, shining a light on its enormous potential and most pressing challenges.
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A Brief History of ComputingVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: What is Ethernet?
Computers Computer is a machine for performing calculations automatically. An expert at calculation or at operating calculating machines. A machine that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.
Memory and Processing. It is the scientific and practical approach to computation and its applications and the systematic study of the feasibility, structure, expression, and mechanization of the methodical procedures or algorithms that underlie the acquisition, representation , processing , storage , communication of, and access to information.
An alternate, more succinct definition of computer science is the study of automating algorithmic processes that scale. A computer scientist specializes in the theory of computation and the design of computational systems. Computer Science Books wiki List of Computer Books wiki Theoretical Computer Science is a division or subset of general computer science and mathematics that focuses on more abstract or mathematical aspects of computing and includes the theory of computation , which is the branch that deals with how efficiently problems can be solved on a model of computation, using an algorithm.
The field is divided into three major branches: automata theory and language, computability theory, and computational complexity theory, which are linked by the question: "What are the fundamental capabilities and limitations of computers? Doctor of Computer Science is a doctorate in Computer Science by dissertation or multiple research papers. Computer Engineering is a discipline that integrates several fields of electrical engineering and computer science required to develop computer hardware and software.
Computer engineers usually have training in electronic engineering or electrical engineering , software design, and hardware—software integration instead of only software engineering or electronic engineering. Computer engineers are involved in many hardware and software aspects of computing, from the design of individual microcontrollers, microprocessors, personal computers, and supercomputers, to circuit design. This field of engineering not only focuses on how computer systems themselves work, but also how they integrate into the larger picture.
Usual tasks involving computer engineers include writing software and firmware for embedded microcontrollers, designing VLSI chips, designing analog sensors, designing mixed signal circuit boards, and designing operating systems.
Computer engineers are also suited for robotics research, which relies heavily on using digital systems to control and monitor electrical systems like motors, communications, and sensors.
In many institutions, computer engineering students are allowed to choose areas of in-depth study in their junior and senior year, because the full breadth of knowledge used in the design and application of computers is beyond the scope of an undergraduate degree. Other institutions may require engineering students to complete one or two years of General Engineering before declaring computer engineering as their primary focus.
Computer Architecture is a set of rules and methods that describe the functionality, organization, and implementation of computer systems. Some definitions of architecture define it as describing the capabilities and programming model of a computer but not a particular implementation. In other definitions computer architecture involves instruction set architecture design, microarchitecture design, logic design, and implementation. Minimalism in computing refers to the application of minimalist philosophies and principles in the design and use of hardware and software.
Minimalism, in this sense, means designing systems that use the least hardware and software resources possible. Remote Communication. Don't Repeat Yourself is a principle of software development aimed at reducing repetition of software patterns, replacing it with abstractions or using data normalization to avoid redundancy. You Aren't Gonna Need It is a principle of extreme programming XP that states a programmer should not add functionality until deemed necessary.
Rule of Least Power is a design principle that "suggests choosing the least powerful [computer] language suitable for a given purpose". Worse is Better is when software that is limited, but simple to use, may be more appealing to the user and market than the reverse.
The idea that quality does not necessarily increase with functionality —that there is a point where less functionality "worse" is a preferable option "better" in terms of practicality and usability. Unix Philosophy is bringing the concepts of modularity and reusability into software engineering practice.
Computer Types Personal Computer is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use. Personal computers are intended to be operated directly by an end user , rather than by a computer expert or technician. Unlike large costly minicomputer and mainframes , time-sharing by many people at the same time is not used with personal computers.
Super Computers - First Computer - Artificial Intelligence - Smartphones Portable Computer was a computer designed to be easily moved from one place to another and included a display and keyboard. Operating Systems. Laptop is a small portable personal computer with a "clamshell" form factor, typically having a thin LCD or LED computer screen mounted on the inside of the upper lid of the clamshell and an alphanumeric keyboard on the inside of the lower lid.
The clamshell is opened up to use the computer. Laptops are folded shut for transportation , and thus are suitable for mobile use. Its name comes from lap, as it was deemed to be placed on a person's lap when being used. Although originally there was a distinction between laptops and notebooks the former being bigger and heavier than the latter , as of , there is often no longer any difference.
Laptops are commonly used in a variety of settings, such as at work , in education , for playing games , I nternet surfing , for personal multimedia, and general home computer use. Most modern laptops feature integrated webcams and built-in microphones, while many also have touchscreens.
Laptops can be powered either from an internal battery or by an external power supply from an AC adapter. Hardware specifications, such as the processor speed and memory capacity, significantly vary between different types, makes, models and price points.
Design elements, form factor and construction can also vary significantly between models depending on intended use. Examples of specialized models of laptops include rugged notebooks for use in construction or military applications, as well as low production cost laptops such as those from the One Laptop per Child OLPC organization, which incorporate features like solar charging and semi-flexible components not found on most laptop computers. Portable computers, which later developed into modern laptops, were originally considered to be a small niche market, mostly for specialized field applications, such as in the military, for accountants, or for traveling sales representatives.
As the portable computers evolved into the modern laptop, they became widely used for a variety of purposes. Tablet Computer is a mobile device, typically with a mobile operating system and touchscreen display processing circuitry, and a rechargeable battery in a single thin, flat package. Modern tablets largely resemble modern Smartphones , the only differences being that tablets are relatively larger than smartphones, with screens 7 inches 18 cm or larger, measured diagonally, and may not support access to a cellular network.
Desktop Computer is a personal computer designed for regular use at a single location on or near a desk or table due to its size and power requirements. The most common configuration has a case that houses the power supply, motherboard a printed circuit board with a microprocessor as the central processing unit CPU , memory, bus, and other electronic components , disk storage usually one or more hard disk drives, optical disc drives, and in early models a floppy disk drive ; a keyboard and mouse for input; and a computer monitor, speakers, and, often, a printer for output.
The case may be oriented horizontally or vertically and placed either underneath, beside, or on top of a desk. Workstation is a special computer designed for technical or scientific applications. Intended primarily to be used by one person at a time, they are commonly connected to a local area network and run multi-user operating systems.
The term workstation has also been used loosely to refer to everything from a mainframe computer terminal to a PC connected to a network, but the most common form refers to the group of hardware offered by several current and defunct companies such as Sun Microsystems, Silicon Graphics, Apollo Computer, DEC, HP, NeXT and IBM which opened the door for the 3D graphics animation revolution of the late s.
Industrial PC is a computer intended for industrial purposes production of goods and services , with a form factor between a nettop and a server rack.
Industrial PCs have higher dependability and precision standards, and are generally more expensive than consumer electronics. They often use complex instruction sets, such as x86, where reduced instruction sets such as ARM would otherwise be used. A mathematician, philosopher, inventor and mechanical engineer, Babbage is best remembered for originating the concept of a digital programmable computer. List of Pioneers in Computer Science Great Inventions Difference Engine youtube Difference Engine is an automatic mechanical calculator designed to tabulate polynomial functions.
The name derives from the method of divided differences, a way to interpolate or tabulate functions by using a small set of polynomial coefficients. Most mathematical functions commonly used by engineers, scientists and navigators, including logarithmic and trigonometric functions, can be approximated by polynomials, so a difference engine can compute many useful tables of numbers. The historical difficulty in producing error-free tables by teams of mathematicians and human "computers" spurred Charles Babbage's desire to build a mechanism to automate the process.
Analytical Engine was a proposed mechanical general-purpose computer designed by English mathematician and computer pioneer Charles Babbage. It was first described in as the successor to Babbage's difference engine, a design for a mechanical computer. The Analytical Engine incorporated an arithmetic logic unit, control flow in the form of conditional branching and loops, and integrated memory, making it the first design for a general-purpose computer that could be described in modern terms as Turing-complete.
In other words, the logical structure of the Analytical Engine was essentially the same as that which has dominated computer design in the electronic era.
Babbage was never able to complete construction of any of his machines due to conflicts with his chief engineer and inadequate funding. It was not until the s that the first general-purpose computers were actually built, more than a century after Babbage had proposed the pioneering Analytical Engine in Computer History - Super Computers Hardware Hardware is the collection of physical components that constitute a computer system.
Computer hardware is the physical parts or components of a computer, such as monitor , keyboard , computer data storage, hard disk drive HDD , graphic card, sound card, memory RAM , motherboard , and so on, all of which are tangible physical objects. By contrast, software is instructions that can be stored and run by hardware. Hardware is directed by the software to execute any command or instruction.
A combination of hardware and software forms a usable computing system. Computer Hardware includes the physical, tangible parts or components of a computer, such as the cabinet, central processing unit , monitor, keyboard, computer data storage , graphic card, sound card, speakers and motherboard.
Hardware is so-termed because it is "hard" or rigid with respect to changes or modifications; whereas software is "soft" because it is easy to update or change. Intermediate between software and hardware is "firmware", which is software that is strongly coupled to the particular hardware of a computer system and thus the most difficult to change but also among the most stable with respect to consistency of interface. The progression from levels of "hardness" to "softness" in computer systems parallels a progression of layers of abstraction in computing.
Hardware is typically directed by the software to execute any command or instruction. A combination of hardware and software forms a usable computing system, although other systems exist with only hardware components. Hardware Architecture refers to the identification of a system's physical components and their interrelationships.
This description, often called a hardware design model, allows hardware designers to understand how their components fit into a system architecture and provides to software component designers important information needed for software development and integration.
Clear definition of a hardware architecture allows the various traditional engineering disciplines e. Processors Computer Architecture is a set of rules and methods that describe the functionality, organization, and implementation of computer systems.
Memory Computer Memory refers to the computer hardware devices involved to store information for immediate use in a computer; it is synonymous with the term " primary storage ". Computer memory operates at a high speed, for example random-access memory RAM , as a distinction from storage that provides slow-to-access program and data storage but offers higher capacities.
If needed, contents of the computer memory can be transferred to secondary storage, through a memory management technique called " virtual memory ". An archaic synonym for memory is store. The term " memory ", meaning "primary storage" or "main memory", is often associated with addressable semiconductor memory, i. There are two main kinds of semiconductor memory, volatile and non-volatile.
Most semiconductor memory is organized into memory cells or bistable flip-flops, each storing one bit 0 or 1. Flash memory organization includes both one bit per memory cell and multiple bits per cell called MLC, Multiple Level Cell. The memory cells are grouped into words of fixed word length, for example 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 or bit. Each word can be accessed by a binary address of N bit, making it possible to store 2 raised by N words in the memory.
This implies that processor registers normally are not considered as memory, since they only store one word and do not include an addressing mechanism. Typical secondary storage devices are hard disk drives and solid-state drives. Memory Cell in computing is the fundamental building block of computer memory. The memory cell is an electronic circuit that stores one bit of binary information and it must be set to store a logic 1 high voltage level and reset to store a logic 0 low voltage level.
Wireless technology has helped to simplify networking by enabling multiple computer users to simultaneously share resources in a home or business without additional or intrusive wiring. Terminate, install and test copper and fiber. Motors : Principle of operation of dc motors, types of DC Motors. In this example, the Client wishes to get a ticket to a File Server. Introduction to Computer Networks Course Notes.
Computer network techmax pdf
That same year in Germany, engineer Konrad Zuse built his Z2 computer, also using telephone company relays. Their first product, the HP A Audio Oscillator, rapidly became a popular piece of test equipment for engineers. In , Bell Telephone Laboratories completes this calculator, designed by scientist George Stibitz. Stibitz stunned the group by performing calculations remotely on the CNC located in New York City using a Teletype terminal connected via to New York over special telephone lines. This is likely the first example of remote access computing. The Z3, an early computer built by German engineer Konrad Zuse working in complete isolation from developments elsewhere, uses 2, relays, performs floating point binary arithmetic, and has a bit word length.
Introduction to Computer Information Systems/Print version
The smart factory represents a leap forward from more traditional automation to a fully connected and flexible system—one that can use a constant stream of data from connected operations and production systems to learn and adapt to new demands. Connectivity within the manufacturing process is not new. Yet recent trends such as the rise of the fourth industrial revolution, Industry 4. Shifting from linear, sequential supply chain operations to an interconnected, open system of supply operations—known as the digital supply network —could lay the foundation for how companies compete in the future. To fully realize the digital supply network, however, manufacturers likely need to unlock several capabilities: horizontal integration through the myriad operational systems that power the organization; vertical integration through connected manufacturing systems; and end-to-end, holistic integration through the entire value chain. In this paper, we explore how these capabilities integrate to enable the act of production.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Introduction to Networking - Network Fundamentals Part 1
The result is huge pressure on industry: Companies have to prepare for the Internet of Things if they are to succeed in global competition for the long term. For the digital factory, powerful and future-proof networks form the core of this data communication. They are what enable all assets involved in the value-added process to be seamlessly integrated. They permit a seamless exchange of data both horizontally and vertically. And they can grow along with the increasing volumes of data. As a consequence, they are an indispensable prerequisite for all companies that want to share the journey into the digital future. The vision of complete digitalization is based on nothing else than the fact that the real world is simulated in a virtual environment. To this end, data and information is continuously read from sensors, electronic devices, machines and systems and transmitted to intelligent systems which create a digital twin of the actual environment. The virtual model permits planning, engineering, simulation and optimization of the processes, before an actual implementation even begins. In this way, processes are implemented even faster, more smoothly and effectively, and productivity is significantly increased.
Where machines could replace humans—and where they can’t (yet)
Computers and computer networks have changed the way in which people work, play, do business, run organizations and countries, and interact with one another on a personal level. The workplace of the early twentieth century was full of paper, pens, and typewriters. The office of the early twenty-first century is a place of glowing monitor screens, keyboards, mice, scanners, digital cameras, printers, and speech recognition equipment. The office is no longer isolated; it is linked by computer networks to others like it around the world.
We protect your website and your customers. Mainframes use proprietary operating systems, most of which are based on Unix, and a. A sole proprietorship is a business with a single owner and not registered as a corporation, partnership or limited liability company. In the following sections, we present a list of computer software and their examples, categorized according to their different types. Topologies may define both physical and logical aspect of the network. Analog Computer: An analog computer is a computer which is used to process analog data. The devices are usually used for display, projection, or for physical reproduction. A hybrid costing system uses elements of both the process costing and job costing systems to analyze the cost of producing a product. With Salesforce, you can build an internal website that merges all employee announcements and events within a single, effective information sharing space.
Future-oriented Industrial networks
Our mission is to help leaders in multiple sectors develop a deeper understanding of the global economy. Our flagship business publication has been defining and informing the senior-management agenda since As automation technologies such as machine learning and robotics play an increasingly great role in everyday life, their potential effect on the workplace has, unsurprisingly, become a major focus of research and public concern. In fact, as our research has begun to show, the story is more nuanced. While automation will eliminate very few occupations entirely in the next decade, it will affect portions of almost all jobs to a greater or lesser degree, depending on the type of work they entail. Automation, now going beyond routine manufacturing activities, has the potential, as least with regard to its technical feasibility, to transform sectors such as healthcare and finance, which involve a substantial share of knowledge work. These conclusions rest on our detailed analysis of 2,plus work activities for more than occupations.
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Today's world runs on computers. Nearly every aspect of modern life involves computers in some form or fashion. As technology is advancing, the scale of computer use is increasing. Computer users include both corporate companies and individuals. Computers are efficient and reliable; they ease people's onerous jobs through software and applications specific to their needs offering convenience. Moreover, computers allow users to generate correct information quickly, hold the information so it is available at any time.
Glossary of Computer Related Terms
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A computer network is a digital telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources. In computer networks, computing devices exchange data with each other using connections data links between nodes.
An operating system OS is software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs. The operating system is an essential component of the system software in a computer system. Application programs usually require an operating system to function. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may also include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage, printing, and other resources.
A computer is a machine that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming. Modern computers have the ability to follow generalized sets of operations, called programs. These programs enable computers to perform an extremely wide range of tasks.