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Internal storage conditions in the meat cold store are characterized by three factors: temperature, humidity and air circulation rate. These are governed by functioning refrigeration equipment and can be modified by changing the operating conditions of that equipment. Changes in operating parameters can be made to achieve different storage conditions or to counteract naturally occurring variations in external conditions. The refrigeration plant has to rely on sensing elements to control internal storage conditions that reflect any deviation and on command mechanisms that can be activated to offset the alerted change.
Sensing elements and command mechanisms are linked either manually, with operators periodically taking readings of the sensing elements and accordingly activating the command mechanisms, or automatically, usually when an electric signal from the sensing element activates the command mechanism.
Between these two extremes of regulation there are some intermediate operating methods. Within the sensing, command and functioning circuit of a refrigeration plant there are many elements, mainly electric relays, disjunctors, contactors , which are not specific to refrigeration equipment but they must be familiar to the maintenance personnel for effective troubleshooting.
Automatic refrigeration is somewhat more complicated than manual as it has to incorporate certain devices for the easier handling of the refrigerating fluid refrigerant. Generally speaking the physical conditions temperature, humidity, and to a certain degree air speed established in any determined area of a cold chamber are not strictly constant over a period but oscillate between a superior and an inferior value, these changes recurring periodically in a somewhat regular pattern.
This cycle can be divided into two periods: during the first the refrigerant distribution equipment functions, and eventually the refrigerating installation; in the second period this installation is off-cycle. Each physical condition to be controlled has its own peculiarities so it would be useful to look at each one in detail. Temperature distribution inside a cold chamber is one of the most difficult features to control.
As the temperature differs in the various parts of the chamber its distribution depends on correct design, on the stacking patterns chosen and on air circulation rate. The space and product temperature is directly controlled by locating the thermostat in the interior space of the cold room or on the product itself, but this is not the case for meat products.
However it may be controlled indirectly by clamping the sensor of the thermostat to the evaporator so that the thermostat controls the evaporator temperature. The former method is indicated where close control of the space and product temperatures is necessary, as in chilled meat storage. The second method is better when it is necessary to ensure total defrosting of the evaporator, even if fluctuations in temperature are minor.
It is employed for operations above freezing. When the temperature is controlled by a thermostat or similar device the sensor element must be placed in such a way that it controls a temperature close to the average temperature of the chamber. To determine this position ordinary thermometers are distributed inside the chamber and, after a few readings, the point with the most representative temperature is easily located.
When the temperature in the cold room has reached an equilibrium with the stored produce which may take from one day to a week , the temperature of the air is practically equal to that of the produce. Heat dispersal through the floor and walls influences the temperature distribution inside the store; an appropriate insulation thickness and correct installation will favour even distribution.
If in spite of this insulation differences in temperature in the store become quite extreme, faulty stacking should be considered responsible. The thermometer or the sensor of the thermostat that measures the temperature of the micro-environment of the store should be placed at mid-height on a wall far from doors and openings, a few centimetres away from and not directly touching the surface and, whenever possible, in the middle of one of the longer sides of the room.
When several coolers are used to refrigerate the chamber the sensor should be placed at an equal distance from them, usually on the opposite wall. For frozen products the same principles apply, though small temperature variations are not a major problem as some large frozen storage chambers where the refrigeration plant is run continuously during the night and stopped during the day allow for a certain oscillation in temperature.
The position of the sensor and the reading and command instruments has to be such as to allow easy access even when the chamber is completely full of produce.
Thermometers used for temperature monitoring and refrigeration plant operation should be placed where temperature control is considered most necessary. However it is advisable to monitor temperatures at more than one location, particularly in large chambers. The measurement of product temperature is also recommended. The thermostat, which is the device to control room temperature, consists of a sensor working in the same way as the thermometer and an emissary electric contactor that transfers the information given by the sensor.
It works on an on-off basis; modulated control is not used in refrigerating plants. The instant that the refrigeration plant must work or stop is determined by the sensor, but it gives an indication only, which is transmitted by the emissary to the electrically acting element, the compressor, for automatic operation. Thermostats control the temperature level of a refrigerated space by starting and stopping the compressor driving motor.
Once the maximum temperature level is reached inside the cold chamber the thermostat closes the electric circuit that starts the driving motor, and when the minimum temperature level is reached it opens the circuit stopping the motor. These cut-out points are fixed so that the thermostat can maintain temperature conditions inside a refrigerated space.
As long as the temperature of the refrigerated space is kept within the fluctuation limits, the functioning of the refrigeration machinery does not change. For space temperature control, when the sensing element is located on a wall far from the cooler, the differential is ordinarily 2—3.
When the thermostat controls the space temperature directly its average temperature is approximately halfway between the cut-in and cut-out temperatures. Correct adjustment of the temperature differential is essential if the refrigeration plant is to operate efficiently. When it is too small there will be a tendency to short-cycle, starting and stopping frequently, which affects the working life of the equipment.
When the differential is too large the on and off cycles will be too long, resulting in excessively large fluctuations in space temperature. The values of the temperature difference in both cases coincide but the range affects the temperature level at which the control is operating, while the temperature differential does not affect this level.
The range and the differential are adjusted and controlled with only one thermostat placed in the refrigerated space, but the adjustment of one implies the modification of the other.
The more sophisticated control systems use electrical sensing elements electric resistance, thermistors and electronic controllers, and the output of the controller is fed to a servo system to operate pneumatic or electric valves.
The temperatures of the cold rooms can be recorded intermittently or continually; the reading may be either directly transmitted to the control room or checked by the supervisor who notes down the reading in each room once or several times daily.
Thermometers should be calibrated annually, but sophisticated measuring systems need more frequent calibration; thus, automatic devices should be verified at least once a week. In summary, thermostats are used for automatic control of the temperature level in the cold room, their function being to start and stop the refrigeration plant by controlling the electric motors driving the compressor and the condenser fan, and also activating the solenoid valve. Maintenance will prevent the malfunctioning of a thermostat.
With the pressure bellows type, if the sensing element has lost its charge it has to be recharged whenever possible otherwise the thermostat must be changed. If electrical contacts are poor owing to a worn or corroded contact point then they should be replaced, though in an emergency they can be cleaned to continue operation.
Poor electrical connections must be cleaned and tightened. The relative humidity in a cold room is an indication of the equilibrium between the water evaporated from the stored produce and its removal from the air by the evaporator. Relative humidity influences loss in meat weight during storage.
This mass loss can be of considerable importance economically less weight, spoiled appearance and nutritionally. The recommended levels of relative humidity for refrigerated storage provide adequate protection against micro-organism development, but they generate a certain loss of mass due to water evaporation that is accepted as unavoidable.
Total losses are at a minimum within a relatively narrow range of relative humidity, say 80—90 percent. Relative humidity inside a cold store is governed by many factors: quantity of product in store, type and method of packaging, stacking patterns, air motion, system running time, type of refrigeration system control, temperature difference, amount of exposed product surface, heat and water vapour infiltration, outside air conditions, and length of the working cycle of the refrigeration installation.
Of these, temperature difference TD is the most important. It should not be confused with the evaporator differential; TD is the difference between the temperature of the air entering the evaporator and the temperature of saturation of the refrigerant corresponding to the pressure at the evaporator outlet.
The TD of an evaporator can be chosen in function of the produce, the evaporator geometry, the operating time of the refrigeration machinery, evaporator frost deposit and the type of refrigerant feeding into the evaporator. The smaller the difference in temperature between the evaporator surface and the space, the higher the relative humidity in the cold chamber the contrary also being true. Notwithstanding other factors the following figures give an approximate guide for TD in evaporator design to achieve the desired relative humidity when the cooler works under forced convection conditions.
The IIR publication Packing station for fruits and vegetables includes a table for the estimation of the relative humidity in a cold store from the air cooler surface temperature and storage space temperature. Where the capacity is below tonnes there is a rapid fall in relative humidity. Obviously the difference in temperature between the evaporator and the space is directly related to the size of the evaporator compared to the amount of heat that must be removed.
To increase the cooling load of a given evaporator surface the TD value must be increased, and, whenever possible, the air speed over the evaporator.
Evaporators with large surface areas are more expensive and occupy more space in the store, so it is more costly to construct a cold store operating at a high relative humidity. This, no doubt, is why most cold stores present humidity problems. However, a large evaporator surface is not enough to achieve a high relative humidity.
The operating efficiency of the evaporator is as important, and is influenced by design, air distribution, refrigerant feeding system, distribution and control; e. Weight loss is not only influenced by the space relative humidity but also by air circulation and length of the operating cycles of the refrigeration machinery, which in turn influence the relative humidity.
These factors interact and are finally influenced by the design and operation of the cold store. Here is some practical advice concerning design and operation to reduce weight loss:. Different procedures to control and maintain relative humidity in the store are only effective within certain limits. For instance, hermetic wrapping of frozen products may induce progressive ice growth in the interior of the package, the rate of growth depending on the storage temperature and on the range and frequency of temperature fluctuation.
Ice formation can be reduced by lowering the storage temperature and temperature differential and by limiting storage temperature variations. There are ways to raise the relative humidity inside a cold room, but they are only temporary: water sprinkling or spraying; ice spraying or dusting; water vapour emission; passing air flow along a packed tower.
These must be considered only as emergency or supplementary operations, as most of the incorporated water goes straight to the evaporator, uselessly increasing energy consumption and requiring more frequent defrosting of the evaporator.
When using water sprinkling or packed towers to humidify the atmosphere, care should be taken that water droplets evaporate before reaching the product stacked in front of the cooler. The humidifying equipment and its control system should be incorporated in the overall air circulation system. A system capable of supplying 0.
Sometimes in winter or during cold weather too high a humidity can cause problems. As the cooling equipment has to function at much less than its actual capacity working periods become very short and cycling-off periods very long; this allows the humidity level to rise and reach values that can be dangerous for the proper storage of meat. The atmosphere of the chilled storage chamber may have a relative humidity of 92—95 percent or even higher during most of the off-cycle which favours bacterial growth, making the meat sticky and smelly.
Excess humidity can be avoided by: dividing the evaporator into several elements; reducing the superficial temperature of the evaporator; prolonging the working time of the refrigeration equipment; or, finally, by direct dehumidification of the atmosphere by passing it through a water absorbent. The extension of the refrigeration working period implies that some heat has to be introduced into the cold store to increase the naturally occurring heat load.
This can be done by using electric resistances or dehumidifiers in small mobile units designed for cold chambers with high humidity problems. The evaporator of the equipment condenses the excess atmospheric humidity and consequently the air passing over the condenser is heated, leading to the on-cycling of the main refrigerating plant. The electric resistances or the dehumidifiers are governed by a hygrostat, though a couple of hours' daily operation should be enough to keep humidity at the desired level.
The heat furnished by electric resistances represents additional energy consumption, as the heating power should be about 20 percent of refrigeration power. The small dehumidifiers on the contrary consume as little as one-fifth of the total heating power, and besides removing humidity from the air they reduce the amount of water that condenses and eventually frosts on the surface of the cold room evaporator.
The cooling surface of the evaporator can be reduced by dividing and isolating some of the elements. This lengthens the operating time and also reduces refrigerant evaporation temperature. Both factors favour the reduction of relative humidity. The humidity level in the cold room can be measured and controlled by using a hygrostat or hygrometer; all instruments should have a fast response. There are different types of hygrometer currently in use.
Hygrometers are often unstable and can easily become out of order; they are very sensitive to dust, their accuracy decreasing when dirt accumulates on the wet parts. If a recording type hygrometer is used, the recording can be centralized in the control room.
The existing equipment was over 35 years old and running on R22 refrigerant which was made obsolete for use in the UK in but is authorised for use until The client did not want any long term shut down of refrigeration plant as there was a estimated down time of up to 1 week. A complete shutdown of the equipment would not have been possible at this time. It was suggested that we use the existing R22 refrigerant in the system and retrofit the oil in the new compressors to suit. R22 will still be in service until so the client has up to 5 years to replace this.
Haier refrigerator parts
There are now many different types of freezer available for freezing fish, and freezer operators are often uncertain about which type is best suited to their needs. Three factors may be initially considered when selecting a freezer; financial, functional and feasibility. Financial considerations will take into account both the capital and running cost of the equipment and also projected losses such as product damage and dehydration. Expensive freezers should therefore justify their purchase by giving special benefits and if these benefits are not worthwhile, they need not be considered. Functional considerations will take into account such things as whether the freezer is required for continuous or batch operation and also whether the freezer is physically able to freeze the product. For instance, a horizontal plate freezer would be inappropriate for freezing large whole tuna.
У всех сегодня красно-бело-синие прически. Беккер потянулся и дернул шнурок вызова водителя. Пора было отсюда вылезать. Дернул .
- Она подняла телефонную трубку и начала набирать номер. Бринкерхофф сидел как на иголках.
Это не смешно, Чед. Заместитель директора только что солгал директорской канцелярии. Я хочу знать. Бринкерхофф уже пожалел, что не дал ей спокойно уйти домой. Телефонный разговор со Стратмором взбесил. После истории с Попрыгунчиком всякий раз, когда Мидж казалось, что происходит что-то подозрительное, она сразу же превращалась из кокетки в дьявола, и, пока не выясняла все досконально, ничто не могло ее остановить.
- Мидж, скорее всего это наши данные неточны, - решительно заявил Бринкерхофф. - Ты только подумай: ТРАНСТЕКСТ бьется над одним-единственным файлом целых восемнадцать часов.
Асфальт впереди становился светлее и ярче. Такси приближалось, и свет его фар бросал на дорогу таинственные тени. Раздался еще один выстрел. Пуля попала в корпус мотоцикла и рикошетом отлетела в сторону.
Я же объяснил тебе, что он зашифрован. Сьюзан, в свою очередь, удивил ответ шефа. - Но ведь у нас есть ТРАНСТЕКСТ, почему бы его не расшифровать? - Но, увидев выражение лица Стратмора, она поняла, что правила игры изменились.
Вся в украшениях. В одном ухе странная серьга, кажется, в виде черепа. - В Севилье есть панки и рокеры. Росио улыбнулась: - Todo bajo el sol. Чего только нет под солнцем. - Это был девиз туристского бюро Севильи. - Она назвала вам свое имя. - Нет.
Арест и депортация Танкадо, широко освещавшиеся средствами массовой информации, стали печальным и позорным событием. Вопреки желанию Стратмора специалисты по заделыванию прорех такого рода, опасаясь, что Танкадо попытается убедить людей в существовании ТРАНСТЕКСТА, начали распускать порочащие его слухи. Энсей Танкадо стал изгоем мирового компьютерного сообщества: никто не верил калеке, обвиняемому в шпионаже, особенно когда он пытался доказать свою правоту, рассказывая о какой-то фантастической дешифровальной машине АНБ.
Самое странное заключалось в том, что Танкадо, казалось, понимал, что таковы правила игры. Он не дал волю гневу, а лишь преисполнился решимости. Когда службы безопасности выдворяли его из страны, он успел сказать несколько слов Стратмору, причем произнес их с ледяным спокойствием: - Мы все имеем право на тайну.
Завладеть персональными кодами компьютеров Третьего узла было проще простого. У всех терминалов были совершенно одинаковые клавиатуры. Как-то вечером Хейл захватил свою клавиатуру домой и вставил в нее чип, регистрирующий все удары по клавишам. На следующее утро, придя пораньше, он подменил чужую клавиатуру на свою, модифицированную, а в конце дня вновь поменял их местами и просмотрел информацию, записанную чипом.
И хотя в обычных обстоятельствах пришлось бы проверять миллионы вариантов, обнаружить личный код оказалось довольно просто: приступая к работе, криптограф первым делом вводил пароль, отпирающий терминал. Поэтому от Хейла не потребовалось вообще никаких усилий: личные коды соответствовали первым пяти ударам по клавиатуре.
Какая ирония, думал он, глядя в монитор Сьюзан. Хейл похитил пароли просто так, ради забавы. Теперь же он был рад, что проделал это, потому что на мониторе Сьюзан скрывалось что-то очень важное.
Задействованная ею программа была написана на языке программирования Лимбо, который не был его специальностью.
Сьюзан отдала приказ: - Перепечатайте сверху. Нужно читать по вертикали, а не по горизонтали. Пальцы Соши стремительно забегали по клавишам. - Так посылал свои распоряжения Цезарь! - сказала Сьюзан.
Беккер показал лейтенанту эту полоску. - Смотрите, полоска осталась незагорелой.
Открыть. Ну и ну, - ужаснулась. - Шестьсот сорок семь ссылок на уран, плутоний и атомные бомбы.
Под потолком завыли сирены. - Информация уходит.