Power electronics is the engineering study of converting electrical power from one form to another. A lot of energy is wasted during this power conversion process due to low power conversion efficiency. It is estimated that the power wasted in desktop PCs sold in one year is equivalent to seventeen MW power plants! It is therefore very important to improve the efficiency of these power conversion systems.
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Power electronics is the engineering study of converting electrical power from one form to another. A lot of energy is wasted during this power conversion process due to low power conversion efficiency. It is estimated that the power wasted in desktop PCs sold in one year is equivalent to seventeen MW power plants! It is therefore very important to improve the efficiency of these power conversion systems. Research Showcase. Researchers at North Carolina State University have created a high voltage and high frequency silicon carbide SiC power switch that could cost much less than similarly rated SiC power switches.
The findings could lead to early applications in the power industry, especially in power converters like medium voltage drives, solid state transformers and high voltage transmissions and circuit breakers.
Electric Machines and Drives The electric machine is an electromechanical energy conversion device that processes and delivers power to the load. The same electric machine can operate as a motor to convert electrical power to mechanical power or operate as a generator to convert mechanical power to electrical power.
The electric machine in conjunction with the power electronic converter and the associated controller makes the motor drive. The power electronic converter is made of solid state devices and handles the flow of bulk power from the source to the motor input terminals.
The advances in the power semiconductor technology over the past several decades enabled the development of compact, efficient and reliable DC and AC electric motor drives. The controller is made of microcontroller or digital signal processor and associated small signal electronics.
The function of the controller is to process the user commands and various sensor feedback signals to generate the gate switching signals for the power converter semiconductor switches following a motor control algorithm.
The sensor signals include machine rotor position, phase currents, inverter bus voltage, and machine and inverter temperature outputs. Fault protection and diagnostics is also part of the motor controller algorithm.
Research in the area of electric machines and drives is focused on design optimization using 2D and 3D finite element analysis, and drives design at the systems level considering operating requirements and control opportunities.
The research is multifaceted seeking innovations in machine configurations, motor control concepts, parameter identifications, and noise and vibration analysis. Motor drives are designed to make the system more efficient, fault tolerant, smoother in operation, smaller and matched to the applications. Modeling and design tools are developed to aid the machine design and drive development efforts. Particular research emphasis is on permanent magnet and reluctance type machines and drives.
Within a single century, personal transportation has progressed from the horse and buggy to nearly a billion private automobiles. It is projected that the need for personal mobility will grow even faster, as large numbers of people are lifted out of poverty in developing countries and demand transportation.
Emissions from oil-burning automobiles clog our air and contribute to global warming. For all of these reasons, finding an alternative to oil for private transportation is imperative. Although several alternatives can propel a car, only one is readily available today: Electricity. With the introduction of electric propulsion, a completely new drivetrain is introduced in the vehicle requiring multidisciplinary research into system components.
The Electric vehicle system is comprised of electric motor, power electronics converters, and energy storage devices such as batteries.
In addition, the overall system must be optimized to maximize overall system efficiency. Finally, to reduce the overall transportation emissions, the vehicle energy storage device should be recharged at times when the grid power production is most efficient and non-polluting. NCSU research on electric vehicle systems focuses on extending the vehicle range by developing more efficient subsystems and including storage systems with higher energy and power densities. Another research topic focuses on development of fundamental and enabling technologies that will facilitate the electric power industry to actively manage and control large amount of plug-in vehicle charging.
Electronic Energy Systems Packaging including power electronics packaging encompasses technologies focused on the physical implementation of power electronic and energy storage systems. Electrical engineers develop circuits and schematics, but what is eventually delivered to a customer are electro-physical circuits concurrently designed and combined into a hardware system. These hardware systems must meet metrics, such as power, weight, and size densities; government and industry standards; and reliability.
Understandably, this research is broad-based and multidisciplinary with studies in electric, magnetic, thermal and mechanical components and circuits. The NCSU research focus is on high-frequency, high-density topologies that use ultrafast-switching power semiconductors, and the materials and fabrication processes to create such topologies. Applications are in new integrated power systems from chip to ship including land-based smart grid power systems; electric vehicle converters and drives; high performance power supplies for aerospace, telecom and DC distribution systems; and ultrafast fault protectors using the latest in SiC and GaN semiconductors.
Those interested in this area would find it advantageous to have had primary study in power electronics and physics with strong interests in heat transfer, materials or structural mechanics. Power electronics is the technology associated with the efficient conversion, control and conditioning of electric power by static means from its available input form into the desired electrical output form.
Power electronic converters can be found wherever there is a need to modify the electrical energy form i. Large scale power electronics are used to control hundreds of megawatt of power flow across our nation. Research in this area includes power electronics applications to control large scale power transmission and distribution as well as the integration of distributed and renewable energy sources into the grid.
NCSU also has a strong program on the emerging applications of wide bandgap semiconductor devices that offer high oeprating temperatures, higher efficiency and higher power density.
In addition, under-voltage or other fault conditions are monitored to prevent damage to the system. The soft-start feature reduces stress on power supply components and increase product reliability. Implementation is typically done using analog integrated circuits but there is a strong trend to move towards digital or mixed signal implementation.
Power semiconductor devices are semiconductor devices used as switches or rectifiers in power electronic circuits switch mode power supplies for example. They are also called power devices or when used in integrated circuits, called power ICs. A power diode or MOSFET, for example, operates on similar principles as its low-power counterpart, but is able to carry a larger amount of current and typically is able to support a larger reverse-bias voltage in the off-state. Research needs in this area include on one hand to increase the maximum power handling capability of the power devices, on the other hand include the need to increase the speed they can switch.
Power semiconductor is also the key in determining the power conversion efficiency. SiC and GaN. Research projects are focused on the analysis of power device structures using numerical simulations and the development of analytical models based on semiconductor transport physics.
Students are encouraged to validate the theoretical analysis using electrical characterization of commercially available devices and by the fabrication of novel device structures. The impact of improvements in power device characteristics on specific applications allows an understanding of trade-offs between on-state characteristics, reverse blocking capability, and switching performance. Electric power systems are comprised of components that produce electrical energy and transmit this energy to consumers.
A modern electric power system has mainly six main components: 1 power plants which generate electric power, 2 transformers which raise or lower the voltages as needed, 3 transmission lines to carry power, 4 substations at which the voltage is stepped down for carrying power over the distribution lines, 5 distribution lines, and 6 distribution transformers which lower the voltage to the level needed for the consumer equipment. The production and transmission of electricity is relatively efficient and inexpensive, although unlike other forms of energy, electricity is not easily stored, and thus, must be produced based on the demand.
NCSU research on electric power systems concentrates on the study of emerging technologies such as power electronics, energy storage, renewable and distributed energy sources on the electric power system operation, control and protection. The research is coordinated through two major centers:. Fellows must pursue an interdisciplinary course of study, combining a major in one of the participating departments with a minor and research project in power systems. Power Electronics and Power Systems.
Learn more. The research is coordinated through two major centers: Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management Systems Center FREEDM focuses on development of a smart-grid that will enable anybody to integrate new renewable energy technologies into the power grid for a secure and sustainable future. Research involves development or adoption of new power electronics, communication, and control technologies to demonstrate and prototype such a system.
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American a temporary reduction of electric power in an area. The protons in an atom have a positive charge, and the electrons have a negative charge. Electric current that changes direction is called AC or alternating current. It is the form in which batteries supply electricity. British the electrical system in a building or machine.
Best practices for energy-efficient machines
An electrical generator is a device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy, generally using electromagnetic induction. The source of mechanical energy may be a reciprocating or turbine steam engine , water falling through a turbine or waterwheel, an internal combustion engine , a wind turbine, a hand crank, or any other source of mechanical energy. Today, generators are used in many different machines and have led to many modern advances. In the future, we may see electrical generators become smaller with larger outputs.
By Maria Temming. October 22, at am. It captures energy from the cold night sky. A prototype of the device produced enough electricity at night to power a small light bulb.
Power factor is a measure of how effectively you are using electricity. Various types of power are at work to provide us with electrical energy. Here is what each one is doing. We express this as kW or kilowatts. Common types of resistive loads are electric heating and lighting. An inductive load, like a motor, compressor or ballast, also requires Reactive Power to generate and sustain a magnetic field in order to operate. Every home and business has both resistive and inductive loads. The ratio between these two types of loads becomes important as you add more inductive equipment. Working power and reactive power make up Apparent Power, which is called kVA, kilovolt-amperes. A high PF benefits both the customer and utility, while a low PF indicates poor utilization of electrical power.
Wind Turbine Generator
Although electricity is a clean and relatively safe form of energy when it is used, the generation and transmission of electricity affects the environment. Nearly all types of electric power plants have an effect on the environment, but some power plants have larger effects than others. The United States has laws that govern the effects that electricity generation and transmission have on the environment.
In electrical engineering , electric machine is a general term for machines using electromagnetic forces , such as electric motors , electric generators , and others. They are electromechanical energy converters: an electric motor converts electricity to mechanical power while an electric generator converts mechanical power to electricity. The moving parts in a machine can be rotating rotating machines or linear linear machines. Besides motors and generators, a third category often included is transformers , which although they do not have any moving parts are also energy converters, changing the voltage level of an alternating current. Electric machines were developed beginning in the mid 19th century and since that time have been a ubiquitous component of the infrastructure. Developing more efficient electric machine technology is crucial to any global conservation, green energy , or alternative energy strategy. An electric generator is a device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy. A generator forces electrons to flow through an external electrical circuit. It is somewhat analogous to a water pump, which creates a flow of water but does not create the water inside. The source of mechanical energy, the prime mover , may be a reciprocating or turbine steam engine , water falling through a turbine or waterwheel , an internal combustion engine , a wind turbine , a hand crank , compressed air or any other source of mechanical energy. The two main parts of an electrical machine can be described in either mechanical or electrical terms.
U.S. Energy Information Administration - EIA - Independent Statistics and Analysis
Account Options Anmelden. Meine Mediathek Hilfe Erweiterte Buchsuche. CRC Press Amazon. Warsame Hassan Ali , Matthew N. Sadiku , Samir Abood. An electric machine is a device that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy or vice versa.
This device uses the cold night sky to generate electricity
A low rpm electrical generator is used for converting the mechanical rotational power produced by the winds energy into usable electricity to supply our homes and is at the heart of any wind power system. The conversion of the rotational mechanical power generated by the rotor blades known as the prime mover into useful electrical power for use in domestic power and lighting applications or to charge batteries can be accomplished by any one of the following major types of rotational electrical machines commonly used in a wind power generating systems:. That is they operate through the interaction of a magnetic flux and an electric current, or flow of charge. As this process is reversible, the same machine can be used as a conventional electrical motor for converting the electrical power into mechanical power, or as a generator converting the mechanical power back into the electrical power. The electrical machine most commonly used for wind turbines applications are those acting as generators, with synchronous generators and induction generators as shown being commonly used in larger wind turbine generator systems. Usually the smaller or home made wind turbines tend to use a low speed DC generator or Dynamo as they are small, cheap and a lot easier to connect up. So does it make a difference what type of electrical generator we can use to produce wind power. The simple answer is both Yes and No, as it all depends upon the type of system and application you want. The low voltage DC output from a generator or older style dynamo can be used to charge batteries while the higher AC sinusoidal output from an alternator can be connected directly to the local grid.
A dynamo is an obsolete electrical generator that creates direct current using a commutator. Dynamos were the first electrical generators capable of delivering power for industry, and the foundation upon which many other later electric-power conversion devices were based, including the electric motor , the alternating-current alternator , and the rotary converter. Today, the simpler alternator dominates large scale power generation , for efficiency, reliability and cost reasons. A dynamo has the disadvantages of a mechanical commutator.
The world is electrifying fast. Manufacturing processes, cars, trucks, motorcycles, and now airplanes are making the move to electrons that Edison predicted more than a century ago.
Energy efficiency should be designed into a machine, by measuring and monitoring energy consumption, and optimal states of machines, production lines, and entire facilities can be determined and implemented through control systems and other changes. Electrical power usage is always specified on the nameplate, but this number is typically a worst-case usage estimate, and the actual energy demand will vary depending on the application of the equipment. For example, a cycling machine will consume power at a variable rate throughout the course of its programmed process. The best way to measure and monitor this dynamic demand is to use a power meter.
Senior electrical engineering students and postgraduates, as well as machine designers, will find this book invaluable. In depth, it presents the following:. Responding to the need for an up-to-date reference on electrical machine design, this book includes exercises with methods for tackling, and solutions to, real design problems. A supplementary website hosts two machine design examples created with MATHCAD: rotor surface magnet permanent magnet machine and squirrel cage induction machine calculations.