Castor oil, produced from castor beans, has long been considered to be of important commercial value primarily for the manufacturing of soaps, lubricants, and coatings, among others. Global castor oil production is concentrated primarily in a small geographic region of Gujarat in Western India. This region is favorable due to its labor-intensive cultivation method and subtropical climate conditions. Entrepreneurs and castor processors in the United States and South America also cultivate castor beans but are faced with the challenge of achieving high castor oil production efficiency, as well as obtaining the desired oil quality. In this manuscript, we provide a detailed analysis of novel processing methods involved in castor oil production. We discuss novel processing methods by explaining specific processing parameters involved in castor oil production.
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- Rape phosphatide concentrate in the technologies of surfactants production by the Actinobacteria
- Concentrate phosphatide
- New leaders in the market of lecithins/phosphatide concentrates
- Search Russian Export / Import Trade Data
- WO2000031219A1 - Improved method for refining vegetable oil - Google Patents
- Castor Oil: Properties, Uses, and Optimization of Processing Parameters in Commercial Production
Rape phosphatide concentrate in the technologies of surfactants production by the ActinobacteriaVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Extracts: Marijuana Concentrates, Types Of Extraction And Our Preferred Extracts
Field of the Invention This invention relates to improved methods for refining vegetable oils and byproducts thereof. More particularly, this invention relates to improved processes for producing vegetable oils having reduced content of impurities such as free fatty acids and phosphatides.
This invention also relates to an improved process for deodorizing lecithin. This invention additionally relates hydrolyzed lecithin, deodorized lecithin and deodorized vegetable oil obtained by improved processes of the invention. Background of the Invention Organic Acid Refining. Vegetable oils are typically obtained by pressing or extracting the oil seeds of plants such as corn or soybeans. Properly processed vegetable oils are suitable for use in many edible oil and fat compositions destined for human consumption.
Such edible oils and fats include salad oils, cooking oils, frying fats, baking shortenings, and margerines. In addition to being widely used in edible oils and fats, vegetable oils are also increasingly utilized in important industrial products such as caulking compounds, disinfectants, fungicides, printing inks, and plasticizers.
Vegetable oils primarily consist of triglycerides, but several other compounds are also present. Some of these additional compounds, such as diglycerides, tocopherols, sterols, and sterol esters, need not necessarily be removed during processing.
Other compounds and impurities such as phosphatides, free fatty acids, odiferous volatiles, colorants, waxes, and metal compounds negatively affect taste, smell, appearance and storage stability of the refined oil, and hence must be removed. Carefully separated, however, some of these additional compounds, particularly the phosphatides, are valuable raw materials.
It is therefore important to select a vegetable oil purifying method that maximizes removal of impurities but does so in a way that least impacts the compounds removed. Vegetable oil impurities are typically removed in four distinct steps of degumming, refining, bleaching, and deodorizing. Of these four steps, degumming removes the largest amount of impurities, the bulk of which are hydratable phosphatides. Refining primarily removes non-hydratable phosphatides, soaps created from the neutralization of free fatty acids, and other impurities such as metals.
Bleaching then improves the color and flavor of refined oil by decomposing peroxides and removing oxidation products, trace phosphatides, and trace soaps.
Soybean oil bleaching materials include neutral earth commonly termed natural clay or fuller's earth , acid-activated earth, activated carbon, and silicates.
Deodorizing is the final processing step and prepares the oil for use as an ingredient in many edible products including salad oils, cooking oils, frying fats, baking shortenings, and margerines. The deodorizing process generally comprises passing steam through refined oil at high temperature and under near vacuum conditions to vaporize and carry away objectionable volatile components.
Vegetable oil refining, also known as neutralization or deacidification, essentially involves removing free fatty acids FFA and phosphatides from the vegetable oil. Most refining operations employ either alkali refining also termed caustic refining or physical refining also termed steam refining.
Of these two refining methods, alkali refining predominates. For either refining method, an optional but preferred first step is a conventional water degumming process. Degumming refers to the process of removing hydratable phosphatides and other impurities such as metals from vegetable oils. A simple degumming process comprises admixing soft water with the vegetable oil and separating the resulting mixture into an oil component and an oil-insoluble hydrated phosphatides component frequently referred to as a "wet gum" or "wet lecithin".
The NHPs, generally considered to be calcium and magnesium salts of phosphatidic acids, are largely unaffected by water and remain soluble in the oil component. Normally, refiners also must introduce chelating agents following degumming processes to remove metal compounds from crude vegetable oil, which typically contains calcium, potassium, magnesium, aluminum, iron and copper. Left in place, these metal impurities form salts of phosphatidic acid, thereby contributing to the NHP content.
Moreover, metal contaminants, especially iron, can darken oil during deodorization, and even small amounts of iron that do not affect the oil's color can nevertheless dramatically reduce stability of refined oil. Treating crude vegetable oil with soft water produces a degummed oil and a phosphatide concentrate containing the hydratable phosphatide fraction. This phosphatide concentrate subsequently can be removed from the degummed oil by a convenient method such as centrifugal separation.
Phosphatide concentrates coming from centrifugal separation will generally contain up to about fifty percent by weight water, and typically will contain from about twenty-five to about thirty percent by weight water.
In order to minimize chances of microbial contamination, phosphatide concentrates must be dried or otherwise treated immediately. Dried phosphatide concentrates can be profitably sold as commercial lecithin. Degummed oil is further refined to remove NHPs and other unwanted compounds.
Mineral acid also is sometimes added during the water degumming process to help minimize the NHP content of degummed oil. The acid combines with calcium and magnesium salts, enabling phosphatidic acids to migrate from the oil to the water phase, thus eliminating them from the crude oil. However, using mineral acid during degumming is inappropriate when seeking to recover gums intended for use as lecithin because the presence of mineral acid will cause darkening of the lecithin.
In alkali refining, free fatty acids and gums are removed from crude or degummed oil by mixing the oil with a hot, aqueous alkali solution, producing a mixture of so-called neutral oil and soapstock also termed refining byproduct lipid , which is an alkaline mixture of saponified free fatty acids and gums. The neutral oil is then separated from the soapstock, typically by centrifugation.
The soapstock has commerical value due to its fatty acid content but must be processed further in order to render it salable. The neutral oil is further processed to remove residual soap. Soapstock is treated in a process called acidulation, which involves breaking or splitting the soap into separate oil and aqueous phases through addition of a mineral acid such as sulfuric acid to reduce the pH to approximately 1. Because the aqueous phase is heavier than the oil phase, the acidulated soapstock is separated from the oil by gravity or centrifugation.
The separated oil termed acid oil has essentially the composition of the neutral oil and is drawn off, washed with water to completely remove mineral acid and sludge, and sold, usually as an animal feed supplement. The remaining aqueous phase termed acid water is the final waste product and can either be used in other processes or neutralized before being discarded.
The alkali refining process has several drawbacks, however, mainly related to soapstock formation. One drawback is refining losses that occur due to the soapstock's emulsifying effect, wherein soapstock acts to take up a portion of the valuable neutral oil into the aqueous soapstock solution. However, heating will not completely prevent emulsions from forming, nor will it entirely break emulsions once formed. Centrifugation forces also are insufficient to completely break emulsions of neutral oil in soapstock.
Another drawback to alkali refining is losses that occur when a portion of the neutral oil undergoes alkaline hydrolysis, often referred to as saponification, to produce undesirable fatty acid salts.
Allowing the alkali solution and the crude or degummed oil to remain in contact for only short times can minimize saponification losses but is often insufficient to remove impurities other than fatty acids, especially impurities such as phosphatides and metal compounds. Consequently, short contact times can make it necessary to conduct a second round of refining.
Yet another alkali refining drawback is that raw soapstock is troublesome to handle. Elevated temperatures also are required to prevent fermentation. On the other hand, overly heating soapstock causes it to boil, producing excessive and troublesome foaming. Still another drawback is the difficulty in disposing of the acid water created during soapstock splitting. Acid water is high in biochemical oxygen demand BOD and low in pH. Disposal regulations require at minimum that the acid water be neutralized before the waste can be dumped.
Many states have much more stringent pollution controls, requiring often costly solutions to ensure effluent biodegradability. Thus, alkali refining involves many processing steps and has many drawbacks. In attempting to address the problems associated with alkali refining, operators must simultaneously vary many factors including the amount of heat applied, the amount and concentration of alkali, and retention times.
Successfully balancing all these factors is a complex and difficult task. Furthermore, successful balancing of factors nevertheless can leave the need for additional refining cycles. An alternative to alkali refining is physical refining. Physical refining is a steam distillation process essentially the same as that used in conventional vegetable oil deodorization processes, where steam passing through vegetable oil vaporizes and carries away free fatty acids. The main advantage of physical refining over alkali refining is that no soapstock is generated.
A second advantage is lower refining losses because there is no saponification of oil and no oil emulsifaction by soapstock. Accordingly, there is significant interest in physical refining due to its economic advantages and friendliness compared to alkali refining.
But because physical refining does not remove NHPs, any oils to be physically refined must be free of NHPs in order to ensure stable refined oils. Oils such as palm oil and tallow, which have low NHP content, can be successfully physically refined. But oils such as soybean oil and sunflower seed oil, which are relatively high in NHPs, are not commonly physically refined because the pre-refming step of water degumming does not remove NHPs.
Moreover, physically refined soybean oils have only limited acceptance in the U. Thus, although present methods exist for refining vegetable oils, significant drawbacks remain.
Alkali refining can substantially remove phosphatides and other impurities but presents economic challenges and water pollution concerns. Physical refining is economically and environmentally less challenging, but many vegetable oils including soybean oil which are high in NHPs cannot be acceptably physically refined.
Consequently, there is a need for an improved process for purifying vegetable oils, and especially soybean oil. A prior method for refining vegetable oils is disclosed in U. Typically, 1. The amount of water is kept low and is limited to the amount that can be absorbed by the filter aid.
Solid acids are used so that any excess above the solubility limit of the small amount of water employed will be retained in the filter cake, and will not pass with the refined oil. A disadvantage of this method is the need to filter out absorbent before the oil can be used. The method typically utilizes 0. A disadvantage of this method is that pH basic materials like those used in alkali refining must be added in order to remove NHPs.
A somewhat similar method disclosed in U. This method claims that producing ultrafine acid droplets eliminates the need for lengthy acid-oil contact times. However, acid-oil contact times of less than about 15 minutes are generally insufficient to sequester substantial amounts of metal impurities. Disadvantages of this method include the need to add aqueous acid and water in separate steps and the need for a chilling step, both being aspects that increase overall processing complexity.
Further improvements in purifying vegetable oil have been sought, particularly with regard to obtaining purified vegetable oil low in free fatty acids, phosphatides, and other impurities such as metals in an environmentally friendly manner. The present invention relates to an improved process having advantages over those previously disclosed. In particular, this invention relates to a non-alkali process for purifying vegetable oil employing a dilute aqueous organic acid solution. This invention also relates to purified vegetable oil obtained by the improved process.
Lecithin Deodorizing The term lecithin, from a true chemical sense, refers to phosphatidyl choline. However, as used by commercial suppliers, the term lecithin refers to a product derived from vegetable oils, especially soybean oil. In addition to phosphatidyl choline, lecithin derived from vegetable oil includes phosphatidyl ethanolamine, phosphatidyl inositol, phosphatidic acid, phosphatidyl serine, cyclolipids, and other components such as free sugars, metals and free fatty acids.
Because they contain several phosphatidyl derivatives, commercial lecithins are often referred to as phosphatides or phosphatide concentrates. Other synonymous terms for phosphatide concentrates include wet gums or wet lecithin.
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New leaders in the market of lecithins/phosphatide concentrates
The company's share in the total processing of sunflower seeds is 2. The range of products is diverse and constantly expanding. In quality it is not inferior to international brands and trade marks. The company is one of the largest in Europe in oilseeds processing. The first plant of the factory was put into operation in December The company is the only complex of workshops and subsidiary units with developed infrastructure. And this is achieved through the implementation of investment projects, new control methods, adjusting production capacity in accordance with the requirements of European standards.
End products produced at the plant today are crude sunflower, soybean and rapeseed oils for human nutrition as well as sunflower, soybean and rapeseed meal and husk used in pellets for animals and, finally, they manufacture phosphatide concentrate from sunflowers, soybeans and rapeseeds used in the manufacture of margarine and in bakery, confectionery and chocolate goods or, in other instances, for cattle feed. At the same time, high productivity rates and the high quality of the raw materials are preserved in end products. The plant is in operation around the clock, seven days a week. The cleaner has two parallel operating screen boxes of laminated wood with a total of eight screen layers each consisting of three screens dimensioned x mm. The total screen area is 24 m 2. The cleaner was delivered with two sets of screens, totalling 48 screens, including additional screens for soybeans and other products. A challenge in reaching maximum capacity for the Omega is the size of the sunflower seeds. However, if seed size deviates from the standard size of seeds, which has been the case with the sunflower seeds used by OILYAR, the capacity falls.
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Ukrainian Food Journal. Koretska M. Prystai O. Double blind peer review.
Chinese consumers and companies have shown great interest in the quality of our cold pressed natural sunflower oil of "Zhelannoye" TM. When searching for the best ways to use vegetable oils, it is important to determine the rational use of wastes products from oil and fat production. These are sunflower husks, cotton husks, cake pressing waste , oilseed residues extraction waste , soap stocks, waste sorbents, tars still bottom , phosphatide concentrates. Buckwheat is packed in 25 kg bags with the logo and manufacturer's tag and g plastic bags. Products are certified and comply with GOST. The protein composition of buckwheat is comparable in biological value with proteins of animal products - fish and meat. Omega-3 acids and phospholipids are also contained in this cereal. There are much less carbohydrate in buckwheat than in other cereals, so the product is especially useful for diabetics and those who control their weight. In June , a statement from the Kazakhstan Academy of Nutrition on the compliance of our oil with the applicable standards and recommendations for oil consumption in terms of its beneficial effects on the human organism was received. The international registration of the "Zhelannoye" brand trademark and its protection were carried out:. In May , our company took part in a food degustation competition held as part of the 19th international exhibition " Food Industry InterFood" in Astana city.
WO2000031219A1 - Improved method for refining vegetable oil - Google Patents
In the enterprise joined the Rusagro group of companies and for the last 10 years it grew rapidly in technical and market sense. The design output of OJSC Zhirovoy kombinat is 75, tons of margarine, , tons of mayonnaise, and 35, tons of packaged oil per annum. The company product range includes more than 92 items: mayonnaise, margarine, sunflower oil, ketchup, mustard, cooking and confectionary fat, including soap. The high quality of EZhK products is ensured through the use of high-quality natural raw materials, new technologies and automated modern equipment. The company is actively implementing projects to improve production efficiency. In a new shop for refining, deodorization and interesterification of fats began to operate at OJSC Zhirovoy kombinat, as well as a site for packing vegetable oil in PET bottles. Address: Ekaterinburg, ul. Titova, 27 tel.
Castor Oil: Properties, Uses, and Optimization of Processing Parameters in Commercial Production
Field of the Invention This invention relates to improved methods for refining vegetable oils and byproducts thereof. More particularly, this invention relates to improved processes for producing vegetable oils having reduced content of impurities such as free fatty acids and phosphatides. This invention also relates to an improved process for deodorizing lecithin. This invention additionally relates hydrolyzed lecithin, deodorized lecithin and deodorized vegetable oil obtained by improved processes of the invention. Background of the Invention Organic Acid Refining. Vegetable oils are typically obtained by pressing or extracting the oil seeds of plants such as corn or soybeans. Properly processed vegetable oils are suitable for use in many edible oil and fat compositions destined for human consumption.
Sunflower phosphatide concentrate are our main product due to their wonderful properties, compared to other sunflower phosphatide concentrate. Of course, sunflower phosphatide concentrate are not GMOs, and also do not contain allergens and is a preferred alternative to soybean phosphatide concentrate in Europe and Asia. Sunflower phosphatide concentrate are ideal for use in the manufacture of chocolate, bread, margarine, fast food, biscuits and many other foods. Applications in the food industry are diverse: sunflower phosphatide concentrate can be used as a natural emulsifier, moisturizing agent, stabilizer, release agent, antioxidant, and dispersing agent.
In the refining of crude vegetable oils, it is conventional to remove phosphatides frequently referred to as lecithin from the oil. This process is commonly referred to as "degumming". Degumming is typically achieved by hydrating the lecithin-containing crude oil and recovering the insoluble hydrated lecithin frequently referred to as wet gum from the oil. A commercial lecithin product is then obtained by drying the wet gum.
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