Cotton fibre can be woven or knitted into fabrics including velvet, corduroy, chambray, velour, jersey and flannel. Cotton can be used to create dozens of different fabric types for a range of end-uses, including blends with other natural fibres like wool, and synthetic fibres like polyester. In addition to textile products like underwear, socks and t-shirts, cotton is also used in fishnets, coffee filters, tents, book binding and archival paper. Linters are the very short fibres that remain on the cottonseed after ginning, and are used to produce goods such as bandages, swabs, bank notes, cotton buds and x-rays.
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Fibre Processing Pilot PlantVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Processing Wool
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Fibre is the starting point of the textile chain. First of all, fibre is obtained from the source, which is then spun into yarn. Yarn is then woven or knitted into fabric. Fibres can be classified into 2 main categories: natural and synthetic. Natural fibres are obtained from natural sources such as animals and plants, while those which are not obtained from natural sources are called synthetic fibres.
This article mainly aims at studying plant and animal fibres - the traditional sources as well as the recently developed ones. The following are some of the popular fibres used in the textile industry:.
It is one of the traditional fibres used in the textile industry. It is one of the most preferable fibres because the cloth made from it is durable, at the same time having a good drape. Moreover, it is moisture-absorbent and smooth to the touch. One of the other qualities of cotton fabric is that it takes time to dry. It also creases easily, requiring regular ironing. It is a fibre that has been used in the textile industry since ages. The properties of linen fabric are very much similar to cotton fabric.
Like cotton, linen fabric is also highly moisture-absorbent and durable. It creases easily and requires ironing. However, it is stiffer as compared to cotton. Linen is usually used in the manufacture of summer clothes and home linen. It is obtained from the jute plant and is popularly known as Golden fibre on account of the golden sheen that it possesses.
On account of its high strength, it is perfect for use in packaging material. Jute is sometimes blended with other fabrics or even used individually in the production of apparel. However, it does not have as good a drape as cotton and creases easily. Bangladesh in India is one of the major sources of jute in India. It is obtained from silk worms. The most popular kind of silk is obtained from the mulberry silk worm.
The silk that is obtained from other varieties of silk worms is called wild silk. China, India, Nepal and Europe have been traditional producers of good quality silk on a large scale. Silk fibre has a unique sheen. It is very smooth to the touch, at the same time being strong. These qualities made it the fabric of choice for sarees and dress materials. Apart from this, silk is also used for nightwear, bed linen, underwear as well as home furnishings.
Wool fabric is soft to the touch and provides warmth to the weather, due to which it is the preferred choice for winter apparel. Wool has other features such as elasticity and good drape. Moreover, it can be easily dyed in different colors, thus making it suitable for use in fashionable winter apparel. The common type of wool used for the production of apparel is Merino wool, obtained from the Merino sheep.
Merino wool is the softest wool in the world. The wool industry in the world is largely spread out in Australia, China and New Zealand. Cargill Inc. The fabric made from corn fibre is easy to care for, cheap and very comfortable to wear. Moreover, it is stain-resistant and UV resistant.
This fabric can be used for several applications such as readymade apparel, diapers, bedding, carpets and upholstery. Moreover, the production of this fabric requires the use of less fuel, and is hence environment-friendly as well. However, in recent times, scientists have come up with an innovation wherein silk is produced from spiders.
As opposed to silkworms, spiders produce silk at normal temperature, due to which the process is environment-friendly as well. Spider silk is useful for the production of light-weight apparel. Coir fibre is thick and strong and is hence ideal for use in rugs, sacks and brushes. If the coir is harvested while the coconuts are tender, the fibre is white in color; however, it is brown-colored if harvested on maturity. The coir industry in India is largely concentrated in Kerala.
Apart from India, Sri Lanka is a major producer of coir fibre. The hair of the yak is very useful in the production of warm clothes, mats and sacks. This is because of its qualities such as warmth and strength. Yak fibre is usually found in black and piebald. In rare cases, white yak hair is also obtained.
This fibre has been used in the textile industry since long. Usually, camel fibre is found in light brown, dark brown and reddish brown shades. It is soft to the touch and the apparel made from it is quite durable. Camel fibre from Mongolia is very popular.
Since long, the soft hair of llamas is used for the production of apparel, while rougher hair is used in rugs and wall hangings. Llama fibre is normally available in white, black, grey, brown as well as reddish brown colors. Llamas and alpacas are very much similar to each other in appearance.
However, the llama is larger in size and has a longer head as compared to an alpaca. Alpacas usually have the same color of hair throughout their bodies, while it might differ in case of llamas.
Alpaca fibre is used for the preparation of winter apparel. Alpaca wool is very much similar to sheep wool, but lighter in weight, warmer and softer to the touch. Generally, alpaca wool is available in white color; however, colors such as blackish blue, brown, silvery gray and blackish brown are also found.
Alpaca fibre has been used in the textile industry since centuries. The popularity of clothing made from alpaca fibre is rising since the last few years. This is mainly because raising alpaca has a lesser impact on the environment as compared to other wool-bearing animals. Apparel producers sometimes make use of a blend of alpaca fibre and Merino wool to get the dual benefit of durability and warmth.
It has been in use since centuries in the textile industry. Legend has it that Ramie fibre was used in clothes for mummies in Egypt as long back as BC. The fabric produced using Ramie fibre is strong, silky, shiny and does not crease easily.
In spite of its strength, the use of Ramie fibre in the textile industry is not all that extensive, mainly on account of the labor, time and expenditure involved in the extraction and cleaning of the fibre. It is useful in the production of sewing thread, filter clothes, fishing nets and packaging material.
Sometimes, it is used in the production of household fabrics and in apparel, usually in combination with some other fabric such as wool. China, Japan, Philippines and Brazil are the leading producers of Ramie fibre. Usually, the fibre is creamy white in color and is silky to the touch after processing is done on it. The hair of the Angora rabbit is long and soft and is found in a variety of colors. Angora wool has been used in the production of sweaters and suits since long back.
On account of its low elasticity, it is blended with wool for producing apparel. Typically, the hair of dogs such as the bearded collies, shepherd dogs, sheepdogs, poodles, terriers, Shih Tzus, dachshunds and wool hounds is used in the production of apparel.
Chiengora hair, being warm and soft to the touch, is widely used in winter clothing and blankets. Sometimes, some other fibre such as wool is mixed with Chiengora fibre for the production of apparel or blankets. It is also popularly known as Pashmina. China has emerged as the largest producer of Cashmere fibre. Cashmere fibre is extremely soft, lightweight, fine and warm. Because of these qualities, it is very useful in the production of winter apparel, jackets, pants, blankets and scarves.
Typically, Cashmere fibre is available in different shades of grey, white and black. It possesses qualities such as warmth, light weight, crease resistance, durability and softness. It is useful in the production of winter apparel. Apart from this, it is also useful in the production of blankets, rugs and scarves. It is a traditional fibre used in the textile industry. It is lustrous and strong and dyes easily. Moreover, it is soft to the touch and lightweight.
It is ideal for use in summer wear, underwear, sleepwear, sportswear, children's wear as well as home textiles. Obtained from the bamboo plant, it possesses several qualities such as smoothness and durability.
It is environment-friendly as well, requiring fewer pesticides as compared to cotton cultivation.
Please fill in your details to download the Table of Contents of this report for free. We also do customization of these reports so you can write to us at mi fibre2fashion. Fibre is the starting point of the textile chain. First of all, fibre is obtained from the source, which is then spun into yarn.
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Man-made fibre , fibre whose chemical composition , structure, and properties are significantly modified during the manufacturing process. Man-made fibres are spun and woven into a huge number of consumer and industrial products, including garments such as shirts, scarves, and hosiery; home furnishings such as upholstery, carpets, and drapes; and industrial parts such as tire cord, flame-proof linings, and drive belts. The chemical compounds from which man-made fibres are produced are known as polymers , a class of compounds characterized by long, chainlike molecules of great size and molecular weight. Many of the polymers that constitute man-made fibres are the same as or similar to compounds that make up plastics, rubbers, adhesives, and surface coatings. Indeed, polymers such as regenerated cellulose, polycaprolactam, and polyethylene terephthalate , which have become familiar household materials under the trade names rayon, nylon , and Dacron trademark , respectively, are also made into numerous nonfibre products, ranging from cellophane envelope windows to clear plastic soft-drink bottles. As fibres, these materials are prized for their strength, toughness, resistance to heat and mildew, and ability to hold a pressed form.
The hemp fibre industry in Canada is in its early stages of development. A number of fibre separation plants coupled with biocomposite manufacturing lines hempcrete, bioplastic, fibre mats, insulation, etc. Some smaller facilities focused on processing hemp fibre for textile applications are also likely to appear on the Prairies. Each commercial processing plant will be extending specific requirements regarding management of hemp harvest, including straight fibre cutting or post-combine straw, retting, etc. Straw specifications will depend on the end use of the fibre.
Certified organic fiber must be grown according to U. National Organic Program NOP standards without the use of toxic and persistent pesticides, synthetic fertilizers, or genetic engineering. USDA-accredited third-party certification organizations verify that organic producers farmers use only permissible methods and materials allowed under the NOP organic regulations. While USDA NOP regulations cover the production of raw agricultural commodities such as cotton and wool, the regulations do not include specific processing or manufacturing standards for textile products, such as t-shirts or mattresses. However, as most of these methods and ingredients are not applicable to textile processing, NOP labeling is likely unachievable for most garments and textile products that use a variety of dyestuffs and auxiliary agents. Given the lack of processing standards under the NOP organic regulations, manufacturers may seek out certification for processed textiles through a reputable private standard called the Global Organic Textile Standard GOTS. GOTS is a stringent voluntary international standard for the processing of textiles containing organic fiber. GOTS addresses the entire post-harvest processing including spinning, knitting, weaving, dyeing and manufacturing of apparel and textile products made with organic fiber. OTA is actively engaged in many projects to protect and promote the organic fiber and textile sector. From enforcing the user of organic claims on processed fiber and textiles to securing an alternative to Methyl Bromide, learn more about our current and on-going projects.
Types of Yarn
The fibre processing pilot plant located at the Vegreville facility concentrates on decorticating hemp and flax fibres. This 13, sq. This one of a kind, state of the art facility was built in with funding provided by the Alberta Government.
As with many discoveries of early man, anthropologists believe the use of wool came out of the challenge to survive. In seeking means of protection and warmth, humans in the Neolithic Age wore animal pelts as clothing. Finding the pelts not only warm and comfortable but also durable, they soon began to develop the basic processes and primitive tools for making wool. By B. People soon began to develop and maintain herds of wool-bearing animals. The wool of sheep was soon recognized as one of the most practical to use. During the eleventh and twelfth centuries, wool trade prospered. The English had become proficient in the raising of sheep, while the Flemish had developed the skills for processing. As a result, the British began to sell their wool to the Flemish, who processed the raw material and then sold it back to the English. The ambitious British soon realized the advantages of both producing and processing their own wool.
Fiber and Textiles
Textile manufacturing is a major industry. It is based on the conversion of fibre into yarn , yarn into fabric. These are then dyed or printed, fabricated into clothes. Different types of fibres are used to produce yarn. Cotton remains the most important natural fibre, so is treated in depth. There are many variable processes available at the spinning and fabric-forming stages coupled with the complexities of the finishing and colouration processes to the production of a wide range of products. Cotton is the world's most important natural fibre.
Read more. All textiles are made up of fibres that are arranged in different ways to create the desired strength, durability, appearance and texture. The fibres can be of countless origins, but can be grouped into four main categories. Natural fibres, with the exception of silk, have a relatively short fibre length, measured in centimetres. Silk and man-made fibres have on the other hand very long fibre lengths filaments ranging from hundreds of metres to kilometres long. Plant fibres consists of cellulosic material, normally derived from cotton, linen, hemp or bamboo, but more or less any plant with extractable cellulose can be used.
The Code of Federal Regulations is the codification of the general and permanent rules published in the Federal Register by the executive departments and agencies of the Federal Government. Sayfa
Plant and animal fibers have provided humans with, among other things, shelter, vessels in which to hold water and cook food, and thread for making fabrics. Even tho most of the world has abandoned mud and waddle home construction and baskets smeared with clay as water vessels or cooking utensils, plant fibers as a source of weaving still remains current in use.
In the Middle Ages , wool was turned into cloth in the thriving wool production trade, in home-based cottage industry, and in private households for family use. Methods could vary depending on the wherewithal of the producer, but the basic processes of spinning, weaving, and finishing cloth were essentially the same. Wool is usually sheared from sheep all at once, resulting in a large fleece.
Most textile materials originate from a single, fine structure called a fibre. Some fibres are naturally short in length and are known as staple fibres , eg cotton, wool and linen. Other manufactured synthetic fibres are known as continuous filament , eg polyester and nylon. Natural polymers , also known as natural fibres, come from animals, insects or plants.