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This critical life safety equipment cannot be installed and forgotten. Fires, floods, power outages, and other emergencies can destroy property and threaten lives anywhere, at any time. What about the responsibilities of building owners, operators and managers to ensure building safety and the well-being of building occupants?
What needs to be done to maximize safety and avoid problems that could be prevented? How much do you know about the proper installation and maintenance of this equipment? How good are the life safety products that are installed in your facilities?
What needs to be done, when, and by whom? How many of us can be sure that our facilities are as safe as possible in the event of a fire or other emergency? What about liability, a very real issue in today's litigious society? How much do you know about life safety and the emergency lighting and fire suppression products that can help to save lives?
In February , a nightclub fire in Warwick, R. Just weeks later, a nighttime fire in a Hartford, Conn. Building safety and critical life safety systems are now getting the attention they deserve--and it's about time!
More frequent visits from fire marshals and building inspectors are just the beginning. It's the responsibility of building owners and managers to be sure their facilities are properly equipped with up-to-date emergency lighting equipment, exit signs, and fire suppression equipment and that this life safety equipment is regularly and properly maintained in accordance with code requirements. Most building owners and operators of commercial, industrial, and institutional properties live with a constant risk of damage and death happening within their facilities and the resulting liability.
Yet, few of them realize their problems could be prevented or minimized with the installation and maintenance of quality fire suppression systems and emergency lighting equipment.
Part of the problem is obvious: Too often, this life safety equipment is neglected, and negligence results in serious injury, loss of life, and increased liability. How does negligence happen, and what can you do to prevent it? Who's Doing the Maintenance? Many building owners depend on in-house staff to perform checks on emergency lighting equipment, exit signs, and inverter systems, as well as portable fire extinguishers and fire suppression systems.
But maintenance workers often lack the training, the time, and the experience to provide the regular and proper mandated maintenance of these critical life safety products. Emergency lighting and fire suppression equipment cannot be installed and forgotten. These products are specially designed, specified, installed, and maintained in accordance with codes that are far-ranging and include operating parameters, as well as guidelines and requirements for regular maintenance, monthly testing, and written recordkeeping.
State and local fire marshals, building inspectors, and insurance company officials can visit any facility unannounced to inspect this equipment. It is their job to ensure all units are properly installed and maintained in accordance with pertinent codes and will work when they must: during a fire, a power interruption, or other emergency.
Clearly, fire marshals are increasing their efforts to inspect more facilities. Would your buildings pass inspection? Are your emergency lighting and fire suppression systems up to date, properly and regularly maintained, and in compliance with local, state, and federal fire and safety codes? When was the last time this critical life safety equipment was checked?
Do you keep written records of all maintenance in a log or computer file for review by the local inspection agency having jurisdiction?
Building owners and managers often think in terms of economics. We received a call recently from the manager of a large office complex that had a staff of three electricians and four general maintenance workers. It had been assumed everything was being done properly until a major power outage proved otherwise. Many emergency lighting units and exit signs did not work, and more than employees had difficulty finding their way out of the building and into sub-zero temperatures.
Another example: A major manufacturing facility in New England experienced a series of power outages because of inclement weather. Again, it was thought a full-time maintenance staff knew how to maintain battery operated emergency lighting equipment and inverter systems.
But this equipment failed to provide sufficient lighting for employees to leave the facility in an orderly manner. It took an inordinate amount of time for nearly office and factory personnel to exit the facilities. Company officials expressed some relief that the problem was only a power outage. What if there was a fire or other catastrophe? How many people would have perished in the time it took to exit the building in the dark? NFPA also says emergency lighting must maintain the specified degree of illumination throughout the means of egress: not less than an average of one footcandle for a period of 90 minutes in the event of a power failure.
The illumination may decline to not less than an average of 0. But building owner or manager liability is a major issue. What happens if emergency lighting equipment is inoperable during an emergency? When if employees are unable to exit safely and orderly when their lives depend on it? What if there are injuries?
The fact is: emergency lighting units and exit signs are not just illumination products. The purpose of this equipment is to save lives. Installation is required to obtain a certificate of occupancy, but proper and regular maintenance is the key to code compliance and reliable operation-- and should be part of a comprehensive life safety management program.
Unless properly and regularly maintained, emergency lighting equipment will not work when needed. Proper maintenance must be performed in accordance with manufacturers? Maintaining Suppression Equipment What about fire suppression equipment?
How much do you know about maintaining portable fire extinguishers and kitchen hood fire suppression systems? The nameplate s and instruction manual should be read and thoroughly understood by all persons who could be expected to use the fire extinguishers. To discharge this obligation, the owner or occupant should give proper attention to the inspection, maintenance and recharging of this fire-protective equipment and should also train personnel in the correct use of fire extinguishers on the different types of fires that could occur on the property.
All fire extinguishers must be inspected and tagged annually, and all kitchen hood suppression systems must be inspected and tagged semi-annually by specially trained service technicians to ensure compliance with NFPA 10 and NFPA These inspections are designed to assure reliability. Five-pound and pound ABCs standard dry chemical discharge time is 14 seconds and 18 seconds. Fire extinguishers that are hung immediately after use are in violation of codes, as is the case when any tamper-resistant seal is undone.
These units must be checked immediately and recharged or replaced with new units, if required. When fire extinguishers require recharging, an outside service company will temporarily replace the unit that was discharged with one that is fully charged and of the same size and type. The original unit is then returned fully recharged. This is all part of NFPA 10 code requirements.
NFPA 10 also mandates the training of in-house employees to do monthly "quick checks" to ensure fire extinguishers have not been tampered with, that gauges indicate full charges, that units are still hung properly, are not blocked or obstructed in any way, and are kept clean and dusted.
These requirements are all the responsibility of trained in-house staff members who are familiar with code requirements. NFPA 10, Chapter Minimal knowledge is necessary to perform a monthly 'quick check.
A trained person who has undergone the instructions necessary to reliably perform maintenance and has the manufacturer's service manual shall service the fire extinguishers. In addition to quick checks by specially trained employees, it is important to note that not all fire extinguishers fall into this category.
CO 2 fire extinguishers do not have gauges and, therefore, must be refilled after use by weight. In-house staff must be trained to recognize that if a tamper seal is missing, a unit must be weighed to be sure it contains the proper amount of CO 2. If CO 2 needs to be added, the unit must be serviced immediately and re-sealed to assure it is not tampered with and is ready for use if needed.
The Bottom Line What is the most logical solution to being assured of having well-maintained, operable emergency lighting and fire suppression systems that meet codes and will work when needed? Do your maintenance and electrical staffs do their jobs to ensure life safety equipment will pass all inspections and work when they must?
Too often, the answer is "No. That's why many facility owners and managers are choosing independent outside specialists to take care of all emergency lighting equipment, exit signs, and fire suppression equipment.
This means everything--from monthly and annual checks of existing equipment to the repair, replacement, and upgrading of existing equipment--can be done by a single life safety service company, specialists whose only business is to service and supply these critical life safety products.
What's the bottom line? Emergency lighting equipment and fire suppression systems are key to occupant and building safety.
Every facility manager must focus on the maintenance of this equipment, utilizing professional independent service organizations to ensure equipment will be properly maintained and code compliant.
You can't afford to take any chances. We don't want to read about another nightclub inferno or nursing home disaster that could have been prevented. During an upgrading program in a large commercial office building, an independent life safety service company examined a number of older DC central emergency lighting systems. Although the manager could have chosen to install new two-headed emergency lighting units, it made more sense to upgrade existing DC systems to improve reliability, expand capability, and extend useful life.
The upgrading process involved gutting the original old electronics portion of the DC systems and replacing it with a new state-of-the-art charger assembly in the same cabinet.
All existing zone relay controls and supervisory panels remained as originally installed. Existing batteries were replaced with maintenance-free batteries to complete the installation, which utilizes all existing cabinetry and supervisory controls. The decision to utilize DC systems also brought power to additional lights in renovated areas of the building. In short, choosing to expand existing DC emergency lighting systems made the most sense, from an installation, service, reliability, and economic standpoint.
While servicing the emergency lighting, independent service technicians also inspected the building's fire suppression equipment. It was quickly determined the kitchen hood fire suppression system was faulty. The gas valve had not been cabled correctly and had obviously not been tested for proper operation, as required. Without this timely inspection and proper re-installation of the cable, kitchen appliances would continue to be fired with gas.
This could have resulted in a fire or the inability of the system to properly extinguish a fire. Because emergency lighting equipment and systems are typically checked twice a year, technicians are cross-trained to inspect and service emergency lighting equipment and fire suppression systems and to ensure they are in compliance with code requirements. Visiting a commercial or industrial site twice a year enables technicians to identify problems easily and get them resolved before a fire, power outage, or other emergency that could jeopardize the safety of people and property.
Improve safety with an easy to use tool for tracking, notifying and reporting on key safety data.
FRNSW has 6, firefighters, both fulltime and on-call, who are all trained in basic rescue and undertake regular training and fortnightly drills to ensure their skills are up-to-date. FRNSW is recognised as a world leader in road accident rescue and our Urban Search and Rescue specialists are the primary responders to disasters and major emergency incidents such as earthquakes, train crashes, building collapse and complex rescues. FRNSW is the only agency in NSW with Rescue Technicians trained to tunnel into collapsed structures, cut through concrete and steel, and use sophisticated electronic search devices. Every fire engine in NSW carries rescue equipment, including rope rescue capabilities for heights and depths, and breathing apparatus for confined space rescues and hazardous atmospheres.
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Additions and corrections. Account Options Sign in. The result is that engineers are better able to keep indoor environments safe and productive while protecting and preserving the outdoors for generations to come. Main sections cover comfort, industrial, energy-related, general applications, and building operations and management. ASHRAE Technical Committees in each subject area have reviewed all chapters and revised them as needed for current technology and design practice.
Facilities Operations & Maintenance - An Overview
Passengers expect a seamless and ubiquitous wireless experience at the airport and network designs must enable coverage and capacity to accommodate the high traffic conditions. Today in our digital age, education institutions are deploying connected classroom learning to bring digital media content into the classroom. Tablets and smart phones are augmenting and even replacing textbooks as a tool for teaching and learning. With digital media contents and connection to internet, people become more dependent on smart connected devices for better learning experience. Public safety first responders such as ambulance service, fire service, law enforcement, rescue squad, emergency management and securities are mission critical operations that help protect and rescue the general public from danger. Communication networks have to ensure that critical information is transmitted and received promptly to co-ordinate and facilitate rescue efforts. Healthcare industry is experiencing ever increasing growth due to global population ageing, the rise of incidence of cancer diseases, outbreak of flus and many other chronic diseases.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Westinghouse: The Life & Time of an American Icon
The beverage industry consists of two major categories and eight sub-groups. The non-alcoholic category is comprised of soft drink syrup manufacture; soft drink and water bottling and canning; fruit juices bottling, canning and boxing; the coffee industry and the tea industry. Alcoholic beverage categories include distilled spirits, wine and brewing. Although many of these beverages, including beer, wine and tea, have been around for thousands of years, the industry has developed only over the past few centuries. The beverage products industry, viewed as an aggregate group, is highly fragmented. This is evident by the number of manufacturers, methods of packaging, production processes and final products. The soft drink industry is the exception to the rule, as it is quite concentrated. Although the beverage industry is fragmented, ongoing consolidation since the s is changing that. This shift began when companies in this manufacturing sector adopted mass production techniques that let them expand.
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Equipment used in Intensive Care Unit A patient usually is put in an intensive care unit when assistance is required for the normal functioning of the organs of the human body. ICU Equipments. ICU Equipment.
NCBI Bookshelf. Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries. Sudden-onset natural and technological disasters impose a substantial health burden, either directly on the population or indirectly on the capacity of the health services to address primary health care needs. The relationship between communicable diseases and disasters merits special attention. This chapter does not address epidemics of emerging or reemerging diseases, chronic degradation of the environment, progressive climatic change, or health problems associated with famine and temporary settlements. In line with the definition of health adopted in the constitution of the World Health Organization WHO , the chapter treats disasters as a health condition or risk, which, as any other "disease," should be the subject of epidemiological analysis, systematic control, and prevention, rather than merely as an emergency medicine or humanitarian matter. The chapter stresses the interdependency between long-term sustainable development and catastrophic events, leading to the conclusion that neither can be addressed in isolation. According to the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, internationally reported disasters in affected million people worldwide and killed 24,—well below the preceding decade's annual average mortality of 62, IFRC Many more were affected by myriad local disasters that escaped international notice.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Intervention to address disasters has evolved through time into a complex policy subsystem, and disaster policy is implemented through a set of functions known as emergency management and response. Modern approaches to emergency management and response involve multidimensional efforts to reduce our vulnerability to hazards; to diminish the impact of disasters; and to prepare for, respond to, and recover from those that occur. These responsibilities present formidable challenges for governments because of the extraordinary demands disaster events impose on the decision-making systems and service delivery infrastructure of the communities they affect. Moreover, by definition an event constitutes a disaster if it exceeds the capacity of the government or governments in whose jurisdiction it occurs. Dealing with disaster therefore requires outside resources.
I have reviewed chapter two of this book. I was very impressed with the book 1. The use of natural light from the sun, moon, etc and artificial light infra red lamps, LED, mercury, sodium lamps, etc. It outlines the lenses cameras, transmission, recoding and monitor functions in a remarkable way. The anaologue and digiatl block diagram on page 21 have not been detailed explained. Smart C Lubobya. Herman Kruegle is a consultant to Avida Inc. He was formerly the president of Visual Methods, Inc.
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DNM International supplies high-quality products and services for fire fighting and relief. The products are primarily aimed at the industrial and civil fire brigades and the authorities.
This critical life safety equipment cannot be installed and forgotten. Fires, floods, power outages, and other emergencies can destroy property and threaten lives anywhere, at any time. What about the responsibilities of building owners, operators and managers to ensure building safety and the well-being of building occupants? What needs to be done to maximize safety and avoid problems that could be prevented?