All electrically-based industries trace their ancestry back to at least B. In , William Gilbert, an Englishman, distinguished between magnetism, such as that displayed by a lodestone, and what we now call the static electricity produced by rubbing amber. Assisted by Henry, an American artist, Samuel F. Morse, developed a telegraph system utilizing a key to open and close an electric circuit to transmit an intermittent signal Morse Code through a wire. The possibility of transmitting messages through the air, water, or ground via low frequency magnetic waves was discovered soon after Morse invented the telegraph. Stubblefield, a Kentucky farmer, in
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Radio, Television and FilmVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Enter The Factory of the Future Powered by Team Communications
Radio frequency RF protocols used to control industrial machines support simple operations such as turning on a motor, lifting a load, or maneuvering a heavy-duty vehicle. These commands are sent over the air, and one of the obvious problems that have cropped up is the possibility of an attacker, armed with the right RF equipment, crafting commands to take control of the industrial devices.
In our research, we found that it is possible to perform attacks within or out of RF range. For remote attackers out of the transmission range, there are two possibilities: be a truly remote attacker and do a computer-borne attack that is, to take control of a computer used to software-program or -control the RF devices , or have temporary physical access to the facility to drop a battery-powered, pocket-sized embedded device for remote access.
As a proof of concept PoC , we developed such a device to show the feasibility. In the course of our research, we experimented with various devices and realized the need for a more versatile research tool. Given the modularity of Arduino-compatible hardware and the flexibility of modern RF-hacking software stacks, we figured that it was possible to build a modular hardware tool that would apply to a variety of RF transceivers. It also works under Wi-Fi, 3G, and 4G conditions. When powered up, the device stays idle to save power.
When set to receiving mode, it goes into deep-sleep mode and wakes up only when a valid radio packet is received. In fact, before retransmission, RFQuack has modified the packet on the fly, according to a configurable set of rules. Alternatively, RFQuack can be used to collect radio packets or just send manually crafted packets. Attacks against controllers can lead to malicious actors being able to control construction cranes, industrial cranes, and mobile hoists on real production implementations.
In the video below, we show how RFQuack can be used to keep industrial radio remote controllers in a persistent denial-of-service DoS state through emergency stop e-stop abuse and even gain control over the machines through command injection. These industrial devices tend to have a very long life in production. In that case, the manufacturers would never develop patches and would instead offer new product lines. Given the very real possibility of attacks against industrial radio remote controllers, we advise system integrators to alert their clients and at least adopt devices that have virtual fencing features, which disable the devices when the remote controllers are out of range.
This means that for an attack to be launched, an adversary needs to either be on-site or know when the legitimate transmitter is enabled. As for the long-term solution, we recommend for manufacturers to abandon proprietary RF protocols and focus on open and standard ones.
Doing this will heighten security and eliminate the burden on manufacturers to design or integrate custom RF protocols. Note that none of the products that we inspected used a rolling-code mechanism.
Posted on: January 15, at am. Posted in: Internet of Things , Vulnerabilities. Author: Trend Micro. Tags: iiot radio frequency RF. Security Predictions for Business Process Compromise. Stay Updated Email Subscription. All rights reserved.
This document addresses some of the major issues you encounter when you try to establish a radio link between elements of a wireless LAN WLAN. Refer to the Cisco Technical Tips Conventions for more information on document conventions. Occasionally, you can trace a problem with the radio signal to a problem in the firmware on the communicating devices. If you encounter a radio communication problem with your WLAN, ensure that each component runs the latest revision of its firmware or driver. Use the most recent version of the driver or firmware with your WLAN products. Use the Cisco Downloads registered customers only to obtain updated drivers and firmware.
Terrestrial television is a term which refers to modes of television broadcasting which do not involve satellite transmission or via underground cables. Terrestrial television broadcasting dates back to the very beginnings of television as a medium itself and there was virtually no other method of television delivery until the s with the beginnings of cable television, or community antenna television CATV. The first non-terrestrial method of delivering television signals that in no way depended on a signal originating from a traditional terrestrial source began with the use of communications satellites during the s and s of the twentieth century. The analogue television picture is "drawn" several times on the screen 25 in PAL system as a whole each time, as in a motion picture film, regardless of the content of the image.
Types of Interference
Bluetooth networking transmits data via low-power radio waves. It communicates on a frequency of 2. This frequency band is one of a handful of frequencies that has been set aside by international agreement for the use of industrial, scientific and medical devices ISM. A number of devices that you may already use take advantage of this same radio-frequency band. Baby monitors , garage-door openers and the newest generation of cordless phones all make use of frequencies in the ISM band. Making sure that Bluetooth and these other devices don't interfere with one another has been a crucial part of the design process.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: How WiFi and Cell Phones Work - Wireless Communication Explained
We've made some changes to EPA. Scientists continue to study the long-term health effects from exposure to low-levels of radiofrequency energy. It is used to transmit signals carrying information in the form of radio waves. Radio waves are broadcast using a transmitter. When the radio waves reach a receiver, the signal is converted back into the information that was originally sent by the transmitter. When you talk on a cell phone, your cell phone acts as a transmitter and your voice is carried on radio waves to the person you are calling. Their phone acts as the receiver and converts the signal back into your voice. In addition to cell phones, other wireless devices such as radios, Wi-Fi routers, satellites, radars and pacemakers can send or receive RF energy waves. Electronic devices that send information through the air are everywhere. Between Wi-Fi, cell phones and other networks, people are in a nearly constant cloud of wireless signals.
How Bluetooth Works
The radio movement began its triumphal march in the USA in , and quickly spread all over the world. It reached Germany in , finding many enthusiasts here as elsewhere. One month after the first German entertainment broadcaster began operation on October 29, , it had already registered subscribers.
According to technology industry researcher Gartner, the number of things in the Internet of Things increases by 5. By , the total number is expected to be Creating reliable wireless connectivity among these devices is proving to be one of the great challenges in IoT. The reliability of the communications system can be defined by the performance of two critical components: a radio transceiver and communications microcontroller. This article discusses how components and solutions from Analog Devices can maximize system-level reliability, enabling high impact applications where the quality, integrity of data, and insights are mission critical. Existing wireless connectivity technologies for consumer devices do not always satisfy the performance demands of industrial and healthcare systems. The different priorities in these systems—including safety, accuracy, and time sensitivity—heighten the need for increased reliability. Cellular systems come close to this but are often unsuitable in terms of battery, cost, and data throughput requirements. Extremely reliable systems exist today for niche industrial and military applications. However, these are designed with reliability being the top priority, and cost appearing further down the list. With industrial IoT, the challenge becomes delivering the same high level of reliability at a much lower system cost.
Radio: History and Production
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Reliable Communication is a Key to IoT Growth
The most important promise made by the proprietors of 5G wireless technology -- the telecommunications service providers, the transmission equipment makers, the antenna manufacturers, and even the server manufacturers -- is this: Once all of 5G's components are fully deployed and operational, you will not need any kind of wire or cable to deliver communications or even entertainment service to your mobile device, to any of your fixed devices HDTV, security system, smart appliances , or to your automobile. If everything works, 5G would be the optimum solution to the classic "last mile" problem: Delivering complete digital connectivity from the tip of the carrier network to the customer, without drilling another hole through the wall. Also: Should 5G be in your IT budget? The "if" in that previous sentence remains colossal. The whole point of "Gs" in wireless standards, originally, was to emphasize the ease of transition between one wireless system of delivery and a newer one -- or at least make that transition seem reasonably pain-free. Not that any transition has ever been a trip to the fair.
Radio frequency RF protocols used to control industrial machines support simple operations such as turning on a motor, lifting a load, or maneuvering a heavy-duty vehicle. These commands are sent over the air, and one of the obvious problems that have cropped up is the possibility of an attacker, armed with the right RF equipment, crafting commands to take control of the industrial devices. In our research, we found that it is possible to perform attacks within or out of RF range. For remote attackers out of the transmission range, there are two possibilities: be a truly remote attacker and do a computer-borne attack that is, to take control of a computer used to software-program or -control the RF devices , or have temporary physical access to the facility to drop a battery-powered, pocket-sized embedded device for remote access.
In electronics and telecommunications a transmitter or radio transmitter is an electronic device which produces radio waves with an antenna. The transmitter itself generates a radio frequency alternating current , which is applied to the antenna. When excited by this alternating current, the antenna radiates radio waves. Transmitters are necessary component parts of all electronic devices that communicate by radio , such as radio and television broadcasting stations, cell phones , walkie-talkies , wireless computer networks , Bluetooth enabled devices, garage door openers , two-way radios in aircraft, ships, spacecraft, radar sets and navigational beacons.
China's ICT industry is also the largest manufacturing sector within the Chinese economy. It shows how the development of the industry was military-driven before , and how subsequently Chinese policymakers, struggling with domestic market reform and challenged by trade liberalisation and globalisation, managed to push through ICT development strategies. Overall, it discusses the debates between policymakers as to the most appropriate economic development strategy for 'catching-up' and demonstrates how China moved away from the across-the-board protectionist and interventionist industrial policies pursued by many developing countries, but has not wholeheartedly followed the neo-liberal free trade and market polices favoured by the World Bank, WTO and IMF. His research interests include globalization and industrial and trade policies in developing countries.
The radio receives electromagnetic waves from the air that are sent by a radio transmitter. Electromagnetic waves are a combination of electrical and magnetic fields that overlap. The radio converts these electromagnetic waves, called a signal, into sounds that humans can hear. Radios are a part of everyday life.