Enamels and glazes are used to cover metal and ceramics bodies. Whether lithium carbonate Li 2 CO 3 or spodumene is used, depends on the requirements of the application. Spodumene is a lithium aluminum silicate and already contains silicon oxide and aluminum oxide, which is a major component in glass. The best known application is the manufacture of glass-ceramic cooktops where no thermal expansion and thermal resistance is essential. Other lithium salts such as chloride, fluoride, phosphate, silicate, or sulfate are also used in specific applications. Please let us know if you are searching for a different type of product or solution which better suits your application area.
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INDUSTRIAL CERAMIC PIGMENTSVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Cool Tools - Silk Screening Mica Powder on Enamel by Jan Harrell
Tin-based opacification by tin oxide and lead-tin-oxide particles was used in glass production since the first millennium BC and in ceramic glazes since the eighth century AD. Opacification process is often characterised by significant amounts of tin oxide and lead oxide dispersed into glassy matrices or by identification of the opacifying particles by means of microstructural or micro- XRD analyses.
The processes of opacification and manufacture are usually more difficult to establish from compositional and microstructural analyses because they leave little diagnostic traces. Tin-based opacifiers and colourants, namely lead-tin-oxide and tin oxide, were used to produce, respectively, yellow and white glass and glazes. They were also used as opacifiers in glass and glazes coloured by other metallic oxides, such as oxides of copper, manganese, and cobalt. In ceramic glazes, the technique marked a turning point in the development of West Asian and European ceramics e.
Caiger-Smith The opacified glazes applied over the entire surface disguised the ceramics bodies and provided a smooth background onto which decorations could be applied. The use of tin-based opacifiers was preceded by that of antimony-based opacifiers i.
For a short period during the first to second centuries BC, lead-tin-oxide yellow glass was produced in northwestern Europe Werner and Bimson ; Henderson and Warren , while evidence of tin oxide white glass in this period is rare. Lead-tin-oxide yellow glass resumed production from the first to third centuries AD in Britain Henderson and Warren ; Biek and Kay ; Rooksby and from about the fourth century AD in western Europe e.
Aquileia, Italy, Maltoni and Silvestri ; Bayley During the Late Antique period fifth to seventh centuries AD , lead-tin-oxide yellow glass was produced and used as a dominant type of glass at Wijnaldum Henderson and Maastricht Sablerrolles et al.
Concurrently, tin oxide was used in glass but appears to have been far less popular than lead-tin-oxide glass and was initially used as an opacifier in glasses coloured by other colourants. Tin oxide opacification continued through early medieval Europe in white glasses, including in England Bayley and Wilthew ; Henderson ; Bayley , Ireland Henderson , the Netherlands Sablerrolles et al.
In the Eastern Mediterranean and the Levant, lead-tin-oxide opaque glass was used from the fourth century in yellow glasses, as well as in green glasses coloured by copper oxide CuO , and in red glasses coloured by cuprite Cu 2 O. During the early Islamic period, the use of lead-tin-oxide glass continued as attested in a set of glass tesserae found at Khirbet al-Mafjar in Jericho, Palestine eighth c. Wypyski , pers. Tin oxide seems to have been more popular as an opacifier for blue and red glasses during the Late Antique in Israel Freestone et al.
It was only later in the Islamic period during the ninth to tenth centuries in Iraq and Iran that tin oxide was more commonly used as white colourant in glass Schibille et al.
The use of lead-tin-oxide and tin oxide opacifiers in ceramic glazes began in Egypt and the Levant about the eighth century during the early Islamic period Matin et al. This technique was later developed to cover the overall surface of ceramics by lead-tin-oxide yellow or tin oxide white glazes, examples being excavated in Tell Aswad Watson , Al-Mina Vorderstrasse , 75—78 , and Qinnasrin Whitcomb , 81—83 in Syria and Antioch Waage and Tarsus Bagci in Turkey.
From around the ninth century, lead-tin oxide yellow and tin oxide white glazes were used in Abbasid Mesopotamia, with the latter gaining more popularity due to its resemblance to the white surface of Chinese Tang stoneware and porcelain Wood et al. Subsequently, tin oxide white glazes spread throughout the Islamic world and became the mainstream glazing technique used on medieval Islamic pottery, including lustre wares from Iran, Syria, Egypt, and Spain Mason and Tite ; Pradell et al.
In Spain and Italy, tin oxide white glazes gave rise to the production of maiolica wares from thirteenth to seventeenth century AD Molera et al. Lead-tin-oxide yellow glazes, on the other hand, seem to have spread more strongly eastwards to Northern and Eastern Iran and Central Asia during the tenth to thirteenth centuries AD, where examples of tin oxide white glazes are scant, but still existing Matin et al.
Finally, lead-tin oxide yellow glazes were used in tile decorations from around the sixteenth century to nineteenth century in India Gill et al.
The increasing amount of data published over the recent years on lead-tin-oxide and tin oxide glasses and glazes has provided an opportunity to understand and identify different trends of production. The lack of information on the methods and mechanisms associated with the production of these glasses and glazes has been largely filled with recently published replication experiments, supported by historical texts.
The aim of this review is to integrate published analytical data on glasses and glazes with a better understanding of the different ways in which they were produced. In doing so, it will be taken as a starting point the explanations of the processes of preparing lead-tin calx, anima, and alkali frit.
It will, then, be discussed how these products can be detected by means of scientific analyses of glasses and glazes, with support for these hypotheses being provided by evidence from primary texts and observations at traditional workshops. Calx is the fine powder that is left after a metal or a mixture of metals has been calcined oxidised by heating in air to temperatures above the melting point.
The resulting calx powder varies in colour from whitish yellow, when lead content is negligible, to deep yellow, when it contains lead in considerable amounts. The calcination reaction, as outlined below, is controlled by the composition of the mixture. This type of lead-tin calx was used as a white colourant and opacifier in archaeological glass and glazes Matin et al.
The calx could have been mixed with either only silica, a mixture of silica and alkalis, or a pre-prepared glassy frit, and subsequently fired to produce a glass or glaze opacified by SnO 2 particles Fig. Flowchart showing processes for producing glasses and glazes opacified by tin oxide paths 1 and 4 and lead-tin-oxide paths 2 and 3.
The subsequent treatment of the calx depended upon the concentrations of alkalis in the final glass or glaze product. On this basis, the calx which contained Pb 2 SnO 4 would have been subsequently treated in two different ways, namely lead-tin anima and lead-tin alkali frit Fig. On this basis, anima is typically identified in archaeological glass and ceramic glazes by two different analytical methods.
Lead-tin anime in compositions with negligible alkali contents were mainly used to produce yellow ceramic glazes. In the presence of alkali salts, a different set of reactions occur. Previous experiments demonstrated that during firing of a mixture of a calx, which contained Pb 2 SnO 4 with silica and alkalis, Pb Sn,Si O 3 crystals decomposed and secondary SnO 2 crystals precipitated from the melt, and as a result, the colour of the glass or glaze changed from yellow to white Matin et al.
Without the addition of alkalis, the dissolution of Pb Sn,Si O 3 and the consequent precipitation of SnO 2 would still occur but only at higher temperatures Molera et al. In order to prevent this dissolution to happen in alkali-rich compositions, the PbSn 2 O 4 -containig calx was first mixed and heated with silica. The anima was then mixed with either pre-prepared alkali glass or alternatively with silica and alkalis and subsequently fired to produce yellow glasses or glazes on tiles Fig.
The main application of this method was in opaque white pottery glazes as early as the eighth century AD in Egypt and the Levant Matin et al. Isfahani It is likely that these samples might not in fact be related to a deliberate application of alkali frit but rather to the anime used in the glasses, which had accidentally reacted with the alkalis during firing and resulted in a glass opacified by tin oxide, rather than lead-tin-oxide.
Published data on the chemical composition of 82 yellow, 80 green, 45 red, 14 blue, and 32 white opaque glass samples spanning the period of second century BC to eleventh century AD is compiled in supplementary file Table S1. Each box indicates lower quartile 25th percentile , median, and upper quartile 75th percentile. The whiskers represent data within 1. Outlier points lying beyond the whiskers are shown as individual points. The production of these two glasses might be associated with deliberate use of an alkali frit or with the use of an anima that had accidentally reacted with alkalis during firing.
In either case, lead-tin-oxide crystals from the initial calx had dissolved in the glasses and tin oxide particles had precipitated as secondary crystals see, Fig.
The significant concentrations of alkalis in yellow 2. The anime were subsequently mixed with pre-prepared alkali glass to produce yellow and green glasses Fig. The duration of heating would have been kept to a minimum to avoid dissolution of lead-tin-oxide crystals and hence the anime-based yellow glasses typically have relatively heterogenous microstructures.
Characteristic features of this process as seen in SEM images are stratified glass microstructures with stripes containing Pb Sn,Si O 3 particles due to the addition of the anime. Examples are green glass tesserae from Kilise Tepe Neri et al.
Alternatively, the microstructure of the glass might show bigger aggregates of lead-tin-oxide crystals within the glass matrix, such as in opaque yellow glass from Tarbat Ness, Scotland Peake and Freestone —Fig.
In other cases, Pb Sn,Si O 3 crystals have been found more evenly dispersed in the glass. Such crystals were identified in yellow and green glasses from Hagios Polyeuktos Schibille and McKenzie , Shikmona Freestone et al. A group of anise-green coloured tesserae from San Giovanni alle Fonti Neri et al. During firing, Pb Sn,Si O 3 crystals would have reacted with alkalis and dissolved in the glass and SnO 2 particles subsequently precipitated Fig.
Some discrepancies are also observed in the published data for red glasses. This observation would immediately recall the lead-tin anime method of opacification as presented in Fig. This might be due to analytical error in the determination of lead and tin in these samples.
It would be useful to repeat the analysis for these samples. A number of crucible fragments associated with the manufacture of lead-tin-oxide yellow glasses were found in a first- to third-century AD context in England Catsgore, Somerset: Biek and Kay and in fifth- to seventh-century AD contexts in the Netherlands Maastricht: Sablerrolles et al.
Analyses of the glass attached to the crucible walls revealed a dispersion of lead-tin-oxide particles in a primarily silica glass Biek and Kay ; Henderson , ; Heck et al. This evidence suggests that the crucibles were used in the process of firing a mixture of lead-tin-oxide calx powder and silica to produce lead-tin anime frit. The anime charge of the crucible was subsequently mixed and fired with a soda-lime glass to produce opaque yellow glass.
As in the case of the Schleitheim samples, the amounts of SiO 2 , Na 2 O, and CaO in glass beads from Wijnaldum are consistently higher than those in the crucible glass, which suggests that glass with soda-lime composition was added to the crucible anime. For opaque white glazed pottery, the amount of alkalis is typically between 0. Calx, transliterated kals in Persian and Arabic, is described in some of the medieval and late technical texts on opaque glazed ceramic glazes in the Islamic lands and Europe.
Some of the texts have only given it a passing mention as an ingredient that was mixed with ground quartz i. Others provided recipes and more detailed descriptions for calcination of lead with tin. First they put the lead into the kiln for a time, and then they throw the tin in on top of it. They mix them at a high temperature until they are well melted. When this mixture brings up an earthy substance on its surface it is completely ready.
They then make the fire smaller and seal the furnace door with mud. The earthy substance which collects on the melt is taken off with an iron shovel until in half a day it has all gradually changed to earth. The craftsmen call this asranj Allan , ; Afshar , —3. A tin calx without lead was also used in turquoise glazes. The composition of the glaze was alkaline, and the presence of lead would have changed the colour to more green; hence, a leadless calx was preferable:.
If one wants to use tin alone to get a glowing white colour, one uses two earthenware vessels. Tin is put into one and beaten with an iron pestle until it all becomes earthy and black in colour. It is cooled and sifted with a fine sieve on the end of a ladle, and put into a second vessel [which has been baked]; they leave it until the fire catches it and it rises nicely from its place.
When it is cool it is a white earth and it is used for making turquoise preparations Allan , ; Afshar , As expected from Fig. Let us come on now to calcination. Kindle a fire of dry wood and let it get so hot that the tin, when put into it, melts directly. Once melted, leave it in this state until such time as a skin is seen to form upon it, and then the skin to lift itself up somewhat and to crust over, and when the melted tin is quite covered over with those crusts, then and there it is pushed with that curved iron plate against the wall at the rear side.
But ere I proceed further I would mix you the lead and the tin, for the tin never goes alone into the furnace. To make the tin crust sooner, many are accustomed to throw some bits of sulphur into the furnace, which does not displease me! Lightbrown and Caiger-Smith , 59— Piccolpasso then provided different recipes for glazes of different colours i.
Titanium dioxide occurs naturally in three crystalline forms: anatase , rutile and brookite , with rutile being the most abundant. In mineral form, titanium dioxide is often deeply coloured due to elemental impurities. Ground mineral rutile found some use as a colored pigment, but difficulties in grinding result in coarse particles with a different morphology than that of synthetic material. Naturally occurring anatase and brookite are not used for pigment manufacture. Both anatase and rutile have been synthesized since the early 20th century for use as white pigments, generally using processes based on either sulfuric acid or chlorine. The pigments are used in applications including: colorants and opacifiers in paints, pastels, inks, enamels, ceramics, glass, rubber and plastics; fillers and coatings in book, fine and photographic paper; and as coatings, delustrants and surface treatments in the textile and leather industries.
CN103101390A - Process for making color rock paintings - Google Patents
Ferro's specialty industrial ceramic pigments are designed to color all types of special glazes and bodies used for industrial ceramics. Our ceramic pigment range contains 25 ceramic stains that exhibit high purity, intensity and brilliance. Ferro's industrial ceramic pigments are designed to color all types of special glazes and bodies used for industrial ceramics. Significant cost savings can be achieved as colors are easily adjusted right in the barrel. Our ceramic inclusion pigments create shining red, brilliant orange, and intense yellow color shades of ceramic bodies and glazes at high firing temperatures. This adds much more versatility to the traditional spectrum of colors available to the ceramic world.
US20130153118A1 - Phosphorescent compositions and use thereof - Google Patents
Disclosed is a phosphorescent composition which contains lead-free glass powder and phosphorescent pigment. The composition is in particular suitable for producing dyes, paints and glass articles. The invention is directed to phosphorescent compositions as well as dyes and paints containing the same. The invention is further directed to articles, produced by the use of these compositions, dyes or paints, and a process for producing luminescent glass articles. Phosphorescent pigments, also referred to as luminescent pigments, are insoluble in the medium of usage and have the property to be able to store incident light of the visible region and in particular the invisible region UV region , and to release the stored energy in a time-delayed manner for a longer period of time in the form of visible light.
B2O; 4. MgO 0. P2O5 0. CaO 2. MnC 0. NiO 0. SrO 0. MoO3 0. Sb2Cb 0.
There are hundreds of organic and inorganic lead compounds , including oxides, carbonates, sulfates, chromates, silicates, and acetates. Most of these are manufactured from high-purity corroding lead. Litharge , or lead monoxide PbO , is one of the most important of all metal compounds. Containing roughly 93 percent lead and 7 percent oxygen by weight, it is manufactured by the oxidation of metallic lead in a variety of processes, each resulting in a distinctive variation in physical properties.
Tin-based opacification by tin oxide and lead-tin-oxide particles was used in glass production since the first millennium BC and in ceramic glazes since the eighth century AD. Opacification process is often characterised by significant amounts of tin oxide and lead oxide dispersed into glassy matrices or by identification of the opacifying particles by means of microstructural or micro- XRD analyses. The processes of opacification and manufacture are usually more difficult to establish from compositional and microstructural analyses because they leave little diagnostic traces. Tin-based opacifiers and colourants, namely lead-tin-oxide and tin oxide, were used to produce, respectively, yellow and white glass and glazes. They were also used as opacifiers in glass and glazes coloured by other metallic oxides, such as oxides of copper, manganese, and cobalt. In ceramic glazes, the technique marked a turning point in the development of West Asian and European ceramics e. Caiger-Smith The opacified glazes applied over the entire surface disguised the ceramics bodies and provided a smooth background onto which decorations could be applied. The use of tin-based opacifiers was preceded by that of antimony-based opacifiers i. For a short period during the first to second centuries BC, lead-tin-oxide yellow glass was produced in northwestern Europe Werner and Bimson ; Henderson and Warren , while evidence of tin oxide white glass in this period is rare.
The powder melts, flows, and then hardens to a smooth, durable vitreous coating. The word comes from the Latin vitreum , meaning "glass". Enamel can be used on metal , glass , ceramics , stone, or any material that will withstand the fusing temperature. In technical terms fired enamelware is an integrated layered composite of glass and another material or more glass. The term "enamel" is most often restricted to work on metal, which is the subject of this article. Enamelled glass is also called "painted", and overglaze decoration to pottery is often called enamelling.
SME Amazon. This widely read global reference tool is one of the most authoritative sources for timely information on industrial minerals and rocks, the markets they serve, and their multitude of uses. Changes in the global economy have greatly impacted the mining, processing, and marketing of industrial minerals. Additionally, the development of new technologies and a globalization of the customer base have driven fast-paced innovation in processing, packaging, transporting, and end use. The new edition examines these important and diverse changes and their complex ramifications in the world of industrial minerals and rocks. Industrial Minerals and Rocks is divided into three parts. Part I—Introduction and Overview: Contains introductory chapters focused on topics broadly relevant to the industry as a whole. Much new content has been added, including stand-alone chapters on industrial minerals transportation, marketing, and due diligence. Part II—Commodities: Focuses on individual industrial minerals, rocks, and materials, and has been rewritten with revised and updated content. Part III—Markets and Uses: Includes valuable information on how industrial minerals and rocks are used in various applications, such as in construction materials, filler and extender uses, and, metallurgy.
EP0644860A1 - Luster pigment application methods - Google Patents
Account Options Sign in. Minerals Yearbook , Volumen1. United States.
Many decorative paints and glazes are used to refine the surface of ceramic products such as earthenware, stoneware and porcelain. In addition to frits, the basic components of the paints and glazes are primarily special pigments.
This invention relates to methods of applying inorganic based luster pigments to a surface. More particularly, the invention relates to a method of applying the luster pigments to a vitreous surface in a manner wherein the luster pigment is fixed thereto without causing an adverse appearance effect. Background Art Luster pigments have a unique appearance.
Frit is a ceramic composition that has been fused in a special fusing oven, quenched to form a glass, and granulated. The origin of the word "frit" dates back to according to the OED as " a calcinated mixture of sand and fluxes ready to be melted in a crucible to make glass". Nowadays this is more commonly called "glass batch", the unheated raw materials.