There are multiple ways to manipulate a microorganism in order to increase maximum product yields. Introduction of mutations into an organism may be accomplished by introducing them to mutagens. Another way to increase production is by gene amplification, this is done by the use of plasmids, and vectors. Microorganisms play a big role in the industry, with multiple ways to be used.
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U.S. Food and Drug AdministrationVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: The microbial truth of how your cheese gets made
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Chapter 1 Raw Materials for Microbial Processes Microorganisms, like all other forms of life, require water and nutrients for growth, reproduction, and maintenance. In addition to suitable sources of utilizable carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur, microbes generally require sodium, potassium, phosphorus, iron, and other minerals.
The major factor in select- ing raw materials for microbial processes is the source of carbon. Microbial processes have long been harnessed for the benefit of man in the production of foods, medicines, and alcoholic beverages. Nature employs microbes on a much grander scale to establish and maintain a balance among the diverse forms of life on this planet. One important aim of science and technology has been to domesticate beneficial microbes, especially for the transformation of raw materials to worthwhile end products.
In general, most raw materials are naturally occurring substances from which more useful materials can be produced. In this sense, microbes them- selves may be considered raw materials suitable for further processing. In this report the discussion will be limited to major carbon sources found in nature, formed mostly by plants through photosynthesis, which can be used either for producing additional biomass e.
In theory, any abundant carbon source might be employed for microbial processes, including coal, petroleum, lignocellulose, starch, sugar, organic acids, and even carbon dioxide.
Some of these sources are currently used; others, such as coal and carbon dioxide, present considerable technological barriers. Coal would have to be converted first to a readily usable carbon base perhaps paraffin or methanol because it is biologically inert and may con- tain compounds potentially inhibitory or toxic to microbes. However, plant biomass and, to a lesser extent, animal biomass, represent utilizable sources of carbon for microbial processes. Well-known examples of microbial processes based on these sources are the production of alcohol from grain and cheese from milk.
The distribution of plant biomass produced by photosynthesis is shown in Table 1. Land-based plants account for 65 percent of the weight of the biomass produced annually, even though they occupy only about 29 percent of the area. The dominant yearly production of land-based biomass, approxi- mately 42 percent, is produced as forest.
Although agricultural crops account for only 6 percent of the primary photosynthetic productivity, they provide not only a vital portion of food for man and animals, but other essentials such as structural materials, textiles, and paper products as well. Agricultural raw materials are the most important source of carbon for microbial conversion processes. The historical multi- purpose use of agricultural crops has maintained a continued heavy depend- ence on this source.
Most agricultural crops and residues are relatively free from toxic materials and this, in addition to their availability, may have stimulated their use as a raw material for microbial processes. Because of these advantages, along with the real technological barriers to using other carbon sources, agricultural crops and residues can be expected to retain their dominance as the carbon source for microbial processes.
But this must not preclude the further explor- ation and exploitation of other sources, especially those indigenous to the less-developed nations. In addition, based on their unique environments and requirements, certain countries may have an opportunity to establish new plants and practices for microbial processes.
Typical Raw Materials Some typical raw materials and fermentation products used in developed countries are listed in Table 1.
Selected combinations of other materials are used as substrates for various products. These raw materials provide carbon, nitrogen, salts, trace elements, vitamins, and other requirements for the processes; hey are few in number because the conditions for large-scale mi- crobial processes impose limitations on the materials that may serve as sub- strates.
In general, the raw materials mentioned in Table 1. Table 1. These crops or their residues may also be considered as raw materials for microbial processes. A variety of other common waste materials derived from agricultural, forest, and urban sources, may serve as substrates for microbial processes Table 1. TABLE 1. Cellulose as a chemical and energy resource. In Cellu- lose as a chemical and energy resource.
New York: John Wiley and Sons. Percen t Paddy The criteria for selecting these raw materials for research are Weir almost year-round availability in large volume in many developing areas and their ease of assimilation by microorganisms. Among raw materials commonly used for microbial processes Table 1. Because it contains both easily assimilable sugars and necessary micronutrients, it is a very useful substrate that is readily utilized by a variety of microorganisms. However, it contains very little nitrogen.
Starch or syrups produced from starch is also a good substrate, and many potential sources are available. These include the cereal crops maize, rice, wheat, etc. In addition to the crops that may be good sources of starch, a few of the plentiful products and waste products listed in Tables 1. Cassava, for instance, may be a good choice as a substrate to produce ethanol, SCP, and other economically valuable substances.
This milt be a better disposition of the crop than its present widespread use for food, since its low protein-to- calorie ratio makes it less than ideal nutritionally. Another promising raw material is coffee-processing waste, which is produced in large amounts 4. It appears to be a good substrate for the growth of various fungi and yeasts. Taro Colocasia esculenta , Cough a well-known staple food, has a more limited distribution than some of the agricultural products mentioned above, existing as a commercial crop only in Egypt, West Africa, Southeast Asia, and some Pacific and Caribbean Islands.
Unless the supply is properly planned, however, it cannot always be counted on to meet the demands of a large microbial process. Most of these selected substrates are rich in carbohydrates, but for certain microbes they may have to be supplemented with sources of nitrogen, salts, trace metals, and other requirements. Possible sources for some of these supplements in developing countries may be whole yeast or distiller's dried solubles from local alcoholic fermentations.
In some countries meat or fish by-products such as slaughterhouse wastes or gutting and canning residues would be excellent supplements. Combinations of plants might also be used to meet the nutritional requirements of producing organisms.
For example, cassava carbohydrate could be combined with soybeans high nitrogen. Underutilized Raw Materials The materials so far discussed as possible substrates for microbial processes are widely cultivated and available. But there are many less-known plants, or plants that may be used only locally, that may be excellent candidates for this purpose. An example is the winged bean Psophocarpus tetragonolobus , now becoming more popular as a food in Southeast Asia and West Africa because of its unique combination of protein-rich and edible seeds, tubers, and leaves.
Certain tropical plants, such as basella and amaranths, have not received much attention as food sources, but they may give a greater yield than many crops in extensive use and may also be useful as substrates. However, under- developed raw materials selected for large-scale microbial processes will probably have to meet Me requirements discussed in the Introduction.
Plants can also be grown specifically for biomass as a fermentation sub- strate. Plants selected for such use should grow and reproduce rapidly, con- tain a low crystallinity cellulose and a low lignin content, and be easily harvested and transported.
Another desirable characteristic of plants for biomass would be an ability to grow in ecological niches in which they will not compete with or eclipse regular crops. For instance, the buffalo gourd Cucurbita foetidissima does well in arid conditions, and the salt bushes A triplex spp. Aquatic plants such as the reed Phragmites communist, cattails Typha spp. This prolific growth has made the water hyacinth a troublesome weed in certain tropical and semitropical areas, particularly the Nile Basin and south- ern United States.
Biomass from domestic waste treatment can be used to produce biogas and fertilizer, feed, or a protein concentrate. At present, domestic wastewater treatment using the water hyacinth is being demon- strated in the United States.
Kelps and seaweeds are sources of carbohydrates other than cellulose. These plants have the drawback of high water and salt content. Farming such plants and harvesting them economically may also present special problems.
Countries with a limited supply of oil and natural gas are not likely to consider petroleum hydrocarbons as a microbial substrate. But countries with large oil and gas deposits also have a supply of methane, which may be used as a carbon and hydrogen substrate for the grown of organisms for single-cell protein.
References and Suggested Reading Bassham, J. Wilke, ea. Birch, G. Food from waste. London: Applied Science Publishers Ltd. Washington, D. Food and agriculture: readings from Scientific American.
Freeman and Company. National Academy of Sciences. Underexploited tropical plants with promising economic value. Making aquatic weeds useful: some perspectives for developing coun- tries. Renewable resources for industrial materials. Methanegeneration from human, animal, and agricultural wastes.
Perlman, D. Fermentation industries, quo wadis? Chemical Technology Schlegel, H. Mircrobial energy conversion. Oxford: Perga- mon Press. White, J. Clean fuels from biomass and wastes. Proceed- ings of the symposium held on January , , at Orlando, Florida, sponsored by the Institute of Gas Technology.
Chicago: Institute of Gas Technology. Wilke, C.
OMB Control No. It does not create or confer any rights for or on any person and does not operate to bind FDA or the public. You can use an alternative approach if the approach satisfies the requirements of the applicable statutes and regulations. If you want to discuss an alternative approach, contact the FDA staff responsible for implementing this guidance.
The Importance of Laboratory Testing for Food Production
There are various types of microorganisms that are used for large-scale production of industrial items. Describe how microorganisms are used in industry to manufacture food or products in large quantities. Industrial microbiology includes the use of microorganisms to manufacture food or industrial products in large quantities. Numerous microorganisms are used within industrial microbiology; these include naturally occurring organisms, laboratory selected mutants, or even genetically modified organisms GMOs.
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Valencia is the third largest city in the Spain. Valencia stands on the banks of the Turia River, located on the eastern coast of the Iberian peninsula and the western part of the Mediterranean Sea, fronting the Gulf of Valencia. Valencia enjoyed strong economic growth over the last decade, much of it spurred by tourism and the construction industry with concurrent development and expansion of telecommunications and transport. And due to its location western coast makes it a big contributor in the Spanish aquaculture market.
Production and application of microbial lipids View all 3 Articles. Due to the fact that humans cannot synthesize these essential fatty acids, they must be taken up from different food sources. Classical sources for these fatty acids are porcine liver and fish oil. However, microbial lipids or single cell oils, produced by oleaginous microorganisms such as algae, fungi and bacteria, are a promising source as well. These single cell oils can be used for many valuable chemicals with applications not only for nutrition but also for fuels and are therefore an ideal basis for a bio-based economy. A crucial point for the establishment of microbial lipids utilization is the cost-effective production and purification of fuels or products of higher value. The yield and the composition of the obtained microbial lipids depend on the type of fermentation and the particular conditions e. From an economical point of view, waste or by-product streams can be used as cheap and renewable carbon and nitrogen sources. In general, downstream processing costs are one of the major obstacles to be solved for full economic efficiency of microbial lipids. For the extraction of lipids from microbial biomass cell disruption is most important, because efficiency of cell disruption directly influences subsequent downstream operations and overall extraction efficiencies.
Good manufacturing practices: Dairy processors
Microorganisms are a promising source of an enormous number of natural products, which have made significant contribution to almost each sphere of human, plant and veterinary life. Natural compounds obtained from microorganisms have proved their value in nutrition, agriculture and healthcare. Primary metabolites, such as amino acids, enzymes, vitamins, organic acids and alcohol are used as nutritional supplements as well as in the production of industrial commodities through biotransformation. Whereas, secondary metabolites are organic compounds that are largely obtained by extraction from plants or tissues.
This practice makes use of alternative materials, requires less energy, and diminishes pollutants in industrial effluents, as well as being more economically advantageous due to its reduced costs. Considering this scenario, the use of residues from agroindustrial, forestry and urban sources in bioprocesses has aroused the interest of the scientific community lately. Notably, the microbial enzymes can be the products themselves as well as tools in these bioprocesses. Agroindustrial wastes are valuable sources of lignocellulosic materials. The lignocellulose is the main structural constituent of plants and represents the primary source of renewable organic matter on earth. It can be found at the cellular wall, and is composed of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, plus organic acids, salts and minerals Pandey et al. Therefore, such residues are superior substrates for the growth of filamentous fungi, which produce cellulolytic, hemicellulolytic and ligninolytic enzymes by solid state fermentation SSF. These fungi are considered the better adapted organisms for SSF, since their hyphae can grow on the surface of particles and are also able to penetrate through the inter particle spaces, and then, to colonize it Santos et al. Filamentous fungi are the most distinguished producers of enzymes involved in the degradation of lignocellulosic material, and the search for new strains displaying high potential of enzyme production is of great biotechnological importance. Microbial cellulases, xylanases and ligninases are enzymes with potential application in several biotechnology processes.
Research at Univ. Access Online via Elsevier Empik. Advances in Applied Microbiology. Published since , Advances in Applied Microbiology continues to be one of the most widely read and authoritative review sources in microbiology. The series contains comprehensive reviews of the most current research in applied microbiology. Recent areas covered include bacterial diversity in the human gut, protozoan grazing of freshwater biofilms, metals in yeast fermentation processes and the interpretation of host-pathogen dialogue through microarrays. Eclectic volumes are supplemented by thematic volumes on various topics, including Archaea and sick building syndrome. Impact factor for 5. Wybrane strony Strona Strona
Although the Safe Food for Canadians Regulations SFCR came into force on January 15, , certain requirements are being phased in over the following 12 to 30 months. For more information, refer to the SFCR timelines. The following good manufacturing practices GMPs are intended to help dairy processors control the operational conditions within their facility, allowing for environmental conditions that are favourable to the production of safe and suitable dairy products. The premises include all elements in the building and building surroundings: building design and construction, product flow, sanitary facilities, water quality, drainage, the outside property, roadways and waste disposal. Adequate segregation of incompatible products and activities is necessary where cross contamination may otherwise result.
Wastes in Building Materials Industry
In the last decades, due to the modern lifestyle, the progresses in industry and technology had led to an important increase in the amount and type of wastes. The problem of waste accumulation every year is all over the world. These industrial and agricultural wastes are by-products, slag, rice husk ash, bagasse, fly ash, cement dust, brick dust, sludge, glass, tires, etc.
Microbial metabolites in nutrition, healthcare and agriculture
Pulp and Paper Industry: Nanotechnology in Forest Industry covers the latest scientific and technical advances in the area of nanotechnology in forest sector providing information on recent developments, structure and properties, raw materials and methods for the production of nanocellulose along with their characterization and application in various industries with an analysis of both challenges and opportunities with respect to environmentally sound technologies and consumer concerns such as health effects. Also identifies the key barriers to innovation, and the breakthroughs required to make nanocellulosic materials viable alternatives in the important sectors.
Springer Shop Empik. Volodymyr Ivanov , Viktor Stabnikov.
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