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Spelling has been retained as it appears in the original publication except as marked like this in the text. The original text appears when hovering the cursor over the marked text. A list of amendments is at the end of the text. The cover image was created by the transcriber and is placed in the public domain. The great increase in the use of furs during the past few decades has caused the fur dressing and dyeing industry to rise from relative insignificance to considerable importance as a branch of applied chemistry.
The past eight years, moreover, have witnessed the virtual transference of the leadership in the dressing and dyeing of furs from Europe to America, and in the quality and variety of products, the domestic industry is now in every way the equal of, and in many respects superior to the foreign.
The great bulk of American furs which formerly were sent to Leipzig, Paris or London to be dressed and dyed, are now being dressed and dyed in this country. In spite of these facts, very little is generally known about the nature and manner of the work constituting the dressing and dyeing of furs. Even among members of other branches of the fur trade, there is very little accurate information on the subject.
Real knowledge concerning fur dressing and dyeing is possessed only by those actually engaged in the industry. The interest and efforts of scientists and technologists have been enlisted to only a small extent in the technical development of the industry.
The reason for this may be attributed to two related causes: first, the almost monastic seclusion in which fur dressers and dyers, particularly the latter, conducted their operations, and even to-day the heavy cloud of mystery is being dispelled but very slowly; and second, as a consequence of the first, the lack of any reliable literature on the subject. Of the few books which have been written on the industry of fur dressing and fur dyeing all of them either German or French , most are hopelessly out of date, or contain no trustworthy data; or, if they do have real merit, they cannot be obtained.
This work is intended for a two-fold purpose: first, that it may serve as a text-book for those who expect to make fur dressing and dyeing their vocation.
The fundamental principles upon which the industry is based are discussed in the light of the most recent chemical and technical developments, and the most important operations are treated fully and systematically, and are illustrated with practical examples.
Secondly, as a practical handbook for the worker in the fur dressing and dyeing plant. The latest factory processes and methods are described, and numerous working formulas given. The formulas are all such as have been successfully used on a large scale, and give satisfactory results when applied under the proper conditions.
In addition, it is believed that the book will prove of interest to chemists and other students of industrial chemistry, since it will be an introduction into a field of applied chemistry, about which very little is known to those outside of the industry. Thanks are due to Dr. Blattner, Fletcher Works, Inc. Jacoby Co. In the latter case, only the hair part of the fur is utilized in the hat trade for the production of felt, the skin being either made into leather, or used as the raw material for making high-grade glue and gelatine.
It is the furrier, therefore, who uses the great bulk of furs, and requires them to be dressed and dyed. In discussing the dressing and the dyeing of furs, there are, broadly speaking, two fundamental subjects to be considered: first, the raw materials employed, which are, of course, the skins or pelts as they come from the trapper.
Other substances used in fur dressing and dyeing are accessories, and will be studied in connection with the processes. Second, all those operations, physical and chemical, manual and mechanical, to which the raw skins have to be subjected in order to obtain the finished fur, ready for use by the furrier. Next to the inherent qualities of the fur skin, the future value of a fur in a manufactured garment depends largely on the dressing and dyeing it receives.
It is in these operations that the beauty of the fur can be brought out to its fullest degree, and if possible, enhanced, or the attractive features can be marred or destroyed, and the fur rendered quite worthless. Therefore, it is quite essential for the fur  dresser and the fur dyer in addition to the technical knowledge and experience which are the fundamental requisites of the industry, also to have more than a superficial familiarity with the various kinds of furs.
In fact, an accurate knowledge of the nature and chief characteristics of furs in general, and of the individual classes, in particular, is almost indispensable to obtain the best results. The habits and habitats of the various fur-bearing animals are factors which largely determine the constitution of the fur, and the nature of the skin. There are as many different kinds of fur hair, with as many different kinds of skin bearing the hair, as there are classes of furs.
The methods of dressing, and often, if the furs are to be dyed, the manner of dyeing, are determined by the nature of these component parts of furs. Various chemicals affect furs in widely different ways. The divergence with regard to the physical and chemical properties of the classes of furs is such as to make almost imperative a detailed knowledge of the typical members of the many groups of commercial furs.
To be sure, there are many engaged in the dressing and dyeing of furs, who never made a formal study of this phase of the industry, but acquired their knowledge empirically, and are apparently quite successful.
It must not be denied, that practise and experience, as in every field of enterprise, are essential to obtaining the best results. But the time and cost of acquiring this precious experience can be considerably reduced by systematically studying the important characteristics and properties of furs. These will be treated briefly, but in sufficient detail to form a basis for discussing the operations of dressing and dyeing.
Fur-bearing animals are mammals whose skins are used in the manufacture of fur garments and other fur wearing apparel. The skin, when it is removed from the animal is called a pelt, or sometimes, in the case of large animals, a hide. The pelt, after having been dressed and dyed, is called a fur, the skin part being referred to as the leather,  and the hair as the pelage.
However, this terminology is not strictly adhered to in practise, and the various terms are often employed interchangeably. The various fur-bearing animals differ considerably in the characteristics of the furs they yield. With few exceptions, notably beaver and Alaska red fox, the depth of shade increases as the habitat of the animal species is nearer the equatorial regions.
There seems to be a direct relationship between the intensity of color of the pelt, and the distance from, or proximity to the polar, or the torrid regions. Thus, white mammals, such as polar bear, ermine, white or Siberian hare, are found only in the northern lands. An exception is the sheep, which, due to its domestic nature, can be found in almost all parts of the civilized world.
Tropical animals on transportation to colder climates, have been known to become lighter-haired when adapted to their new environment. The skins of animals living in dense woods or forests, are generally of a deeper color than in animals living in more open territory.
As a general rule, fur-bearing animals have darker hair on the back than on the sides and belly. The badger, hamster, ratel and panda are exceptions having the darker hair on the belly and sides, and the lighter hair on the back. With regard to the intensity of color, the skunk has the blackest fur, although some domestic cats are also quite black. Other animals whose fur is nearly black, are the black bear, and the black fox, which is a variety of the silver fox, but the color is often of a brownish shade.
The colors which predominate among animals of the fur-bearing variety, are white, black, brown, and grey. Less common are yellow shades, and those known as blue. The quality of the fur on all mammals improves with cold, and animals living at greater altitudes, with correspondingly lower temperatures, have thicker and finer hair than those living nearer sea-level.
A cold winter generally produces fur of high quality and fine color, a mild winter may  cause the hair to be inferior. In all climates, animals found in dense woods, have fur which is deeper, silkier, thicker, and glossier than that of animals living in the open. Animals inhabiting inland lakes and rivers, have finer and softer hair than those living near the coast or land exposed to sea winds.
In general, the hair of animals of the cold regions is short, fine, soft, and downy, while the hair of animals of warmer lands, is longer, stiffer, and harder.
Both the quality and color of the fur vary with the age of the animal. The young usually have a thicker coat of fur than adults, but the hair is too soft, and the skin generally too tender to be fit for use.
In certain cases, particularly the baby lambs, very young skins are especially prized, and eagerly sought, but extraordinary care has to be exercised in working with them. Fur is at its best when the animal is between one and two years old. After this age, the fur becomes coarse and scraggy. The animal attains its fullest growth of hair usually in the height of winter, and the fur is best between then and very early spring. Before mid-winter the hair is short and thin, and in the spring it begins to shed, and will continue to fall out even in the dressed fur.
The color of the hair also becomes lighter with age, and the new growth which generally comes in the fall is darker than the old coat. Different members of the same species, will, other factors such as age and season being equal, vary as to color and quality.
There may even be several different color phases of the same species of animal, such as the cross fox and the silver fox, both of which are of the same genus as the red fox; black muskrats are of the same class as the brown variety, etc. The individual pelt likewise presents many variations in color and nature of the hair. In some parts, the hair is thicker and softer than others, and the color varies in intensity and shade throughout the different sections of the skin.
Furs do not have differences confined to the hair part  only; the leather also presents considerable variation among the different fur-bearing animals, especially in regard to the weight and thickness. The durability of furs, relatively considered under similar conditions of wear, also varies widely. In the following table the relative durability of dressed furs, and in certain instances also dyed furs, otter being taken as standard, is given, as well as the weight in ounces per square foot of skin of these furs.
In estimating the value of a fur, many factors have to be considered. There is no one standard by which the skins are judged, each kind of fur having its own criterion. However, the general points by which raw furs are graded are, color, size, origin, quality and quantity of hair, condition of leather, date or season of trapping, methods of handling, etc.
Beaver, for example, is graded as large, medium, small and cubs. Red foxes, first, into Alaska, Labrador, and Nova Scotia, and then these divisions are classed as large, medium and small. Skunks are graded according to the amount of white on the skin, the less white, the more valuable the fur. The qualities which make a fur desired depend first of all on the nature of the fur itself.
Pretty color, luster, thickness, softness, length, uniformity and regular fall of the hair are the chief points to be considered. Furs which are always comparatively rare, such as silver fox, Russian sable, chinchilla, etc. In this connection, circumstances which  tend to decrease the number of available pelts of any particular animal, such as pestilences, gradual extermination due to excessive trapping, prevention of trapping, by protective laws, also affect the value of a fur.
A third factor which has an influence on the value of furs, is the prevailing style or fashion. Many kinds of furs which are both beautiful and rare, such as Russian sable or chinchilla, are practically unaffected by the whims of fashion. But a fur of ordinary value may at times become so popular, that the demand for it will cause its price to be greatly increased.
Similarly, a fur which has enjoyed a considerable vogue, may pass out of demand for a time and consequently depreciate in value. However, it is desirable that the reader who is interested in the dressing and dyeing of furs should have at least a passing acquaintance with the chief furs used in commerce, together with such of their individual characteristics as are of importance. The figures given are for the average dressed skin. This is one of the few animals whose fur is darker on the belly than on the back.
The American sorts have coarse, thick under-hair of a pale fawn or stone color, with a growth of longer black and white hairs 3—4 inches long. The Japanese varieties are usually dyed for imitation skunk. The American kind is also dyed occasionally but is mostly used natural. Bear, Black. Has fine, dark brown under-hair, with bright, flowing black top-hair 4 inches long.
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Она выглядела как первокурсница, попавшая под дождь, а он был похож на студента последнего курса, одолжившего ей свою куртку. Впервые за многие годы коммандер почувствовал себя молодым. Его мечта была близка к осуществлению. Однако, сделав еще несколько шагов, Стратмор почувствовалчто смотрит в глаза совершенно незнакомой ему женщины. Ее глаза были холодны как лед, а ее обычная мягкость исчезла без следа.
Сьюзан стояла прямо и неподвижно, как статуя. Глаза ее были полны слез.
В уране девяносто два протона и сто сорок шесть нейтронов, но… - Нам нужна самоочевидная разница, - подсказала Мидж. - У Танкадо сказано: главная разница между элементами. - Господи Иисусе! - вскричал Джабба. - Откуда нам знать, что для Танкадо было главной разницей.
- На самом деле, - прервал его Дэвид, - Танкадо имел в виду первичную, а не главную разницу. Его слова буквально обожгли Сьюзан. - Первичное! - воскликнула .SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Industrial Fur and Sheepskin Sewing Machine. How to Sew on Fur Sewing Machine
- У ТРАНСТЕКСТА есть автоматический выключатель.
Но решил этого не делать. Сьюзан так и подумала. Старшие должностные лица АНБ имели право разбираться со своими кризисными ситуациями, не уведомляя об этом исполнительную власть страны. АНБ было единственной разведывательной организацией США, освобожденной от обязанности отчитываться перед федеральным правительством. Стратмор нередко пользовался этой привилегией: он предпочитал творить свое волшебство в уединении. - Коммандер, - все же возразила она, - это слишком крупная неприятность, и с ней не стоит оставаться наедине.
Вам следовало бы привлечь кого-то .
Ей казалось, что она слышит его голос, зовущий ее, заставляющий спасаться бегством, но куда ей бежать. Шифровалка превратилась в наглухо закрытую гробницу. Но это теперь не имело никакого значения, мысль о смерти ее не пугала.
Так, чтобы не осталось и следа. Сьюзан нахмурилась.
Она безуспешно пыталась высвободиться. - Я сделал это ради нас обоих. Мы созданы друг для друга. Сьюзан, я люблю. - Слова лились потоком, словно ждали много лет, чтобы сорваться с его губ. - Я люблю. Я люблю. В этот момент в тридцати метрах от них, как бы отвергая мерзкие признания Стратмора, ТРАНСТЕКСТ издал дикий, душераздирающий вопль.
Звук был совершенно новым - глубинным, зловещим, нарастающим, похожим на змею, выползающую из бездонной шахты.
Какое-то время Стратмор задумчиво нажимал на клавиши мышки, вмонтированной в столешницу письменного стола. После долгой паузы он наконец посмотрел ей в глаза и долго не отводил взгляда. - Назови мне самое большое время, которое ТРАНСТЕКСТ затрачивал на взламывание кода. Что за чепуха. И ради этого он вызвал меня в субботу.
- Как сказать… - Она заколебалась.
И ради этого он вызвал меня в субботу. - Как сказать… - Она заколебалась. - Несколько месяцев назад к нам попал перехват КОМИНТ, на расшифровку ушло около часа, но там мы столкнулись с удивительно длинным шифром - что-то около десяти тысяч бит.
- Около часа, говоришь? - хмуро спросил. - А что ты скажешь о проверках пределов памяти, которые мы выполняли. Сьюзан пожала плечами. - Ну, если вы имеете в виду и диагностику, то времени уходило .
В то время как даже при нынешнем рекорде - сто пятьдесят вскрытых шифров в день - они не успевают расшифровывать всю перехватываемую информацию. - Танкадо звонил мне в прошлом месяце, - сказал Стратмор, прервав размышления Сьюзан. - Танкадо звонил вам? - удивилась.
Он кивнул: - Чтобы предупредить.
А вы хотите сказать, что какой-то панк с персональным компьютером придумал, как это сделать. Стратмор заговорил тише, явно желая ее успокоить: - Я бы не назвал этого парня панком. Но Сьюзан его не слушала. Она была убеждена, что должно найтись какое-то другое объяснение.
Он не заметил в АНБ ни одного существа женского пола. - Вас это смущает? - раздался у него за спиной звонкий голос.
Пуля ударила в асфальт в нескольких метрах позади. Беккер оглянулся.