General Motors experienced phenomenal growth during its formative years. Through a series of various strategic acquisitions and shrewd business moves, the company quickly became the largest automaker in the world. By the mids, GM accounted for 44 percent of U. At the time, it controlled more than 50 percent of the U. General Motors grew into an industry behemoth through strategic acquisitions, savvy marketing and financial wizardry. The company thrived on a decentralized decision-making structure that was supported by systematically gathered data.
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GM Centennial: Manufacturing InnovationVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Toyota Production Documentary - Toyota Manufacturing Production and Assembly at Toyota Factory
General Motors experienced phenomenal growth during its formative years. Through a series of various strategic acquisitions and shrewd business moves, the company quickly became the largest automaker in the world.
By the mids, GM accounted for 44 percent of U. At the time, it controlled more than 50 percent of the U. General Motors grew into an industry behemoth through strategic acquisitions, savvy marketing and financial wizardry. The company thrived on a decentralized decision-making structure that was supported by systematically gathered data. Over the last years, GM engineers also pioneered concepts such as changeover, flexible assembly, automation, computer simulation, machine vision and robotics.
They have continually innovated on the plant floor with new assembly processes and production tools. Manufacturing engineers at GM have developed several innovations over the last century that have dramatically improved assembly line productivity, product flow and efficiency. One of those actually predates the creation of GM itself. Up until then, the leading manufacturers in the fledgling auto industry were only producing several hundred vehicles a year.
For instance, Olds assembled just vehicles in The progressive assembly technique pioneered by Olds used wooden tables and metal stands mounted on wheeled dollies to speed production and improve workflow.
The carts were manually moved from one workstation to the next as parts and components were installed and assembled in sequence to become a completed vehicle. When GM acquired the Olds operation in November , the factory was assembling more than 6, cars a year.
But, it still lagged behind rivals such as Ford Motor Co. Dearborn, MI. When a former railroad shop supervisor named Walter Chrysler became works manager at Buick in , he implemented a series of innovations to reduce the time and cost of final assembly. He set out to streamline the production process by eliminating wasted time and materials, and making Buick cars easier to assemble. Chrysler introduced methods and techniques that were new to the auto industry, such as determining the cost of a car in advance of production, rather than setting the price by guesswork after it was assembled.
Chrysler had honed his skills while employed in the locomotive manufacturing industry. Buick assemblers had been using traditional carriage-building methods. It took 4 days to produce one automobile frame. Each wooden frame was sanded, painted several times and dried for 12 hours between coats.
Chrysler slashed production time in half by eliminating several coats of paint and reducing drying time by increasing the temperature in the drying rooms. The building used for final assembly had numerous posts scattered about the floor to support the roof. To increase the amount of available space and improve material flow, Chrysler braced the roof with stronger trusses and removed the support beams.
When Chrysler arrived on the scene, each Buick model was almost completely assembled in one spot on the factory floor. Crews carried parts to each workstation, assembled part of the vehicle and then moved on to the next workstation. To speed up production, Chrysler installed a track throughout the plant that was made from two-by-fours. After the wheels and springs were attached to the frame, vehicles were pushed along the track and, as the car came to assemblers, they each attached a part before the car was wheeled to the next workstation.
Chrysler claimed that Ford operated its final assembly line on a chain conveyor after Buick had begun its own nonmotorized system. Because of the new assembly process, Buick output increased from 45 to cars a day. As a result, production increased to 28, units in By , Buick assemblers were turning out , cars per year. A few years later, Chrysler started his own company.
All parts were made in-house, including cap screws, nuts and bolts. The goal was to bring all final vehicle assembly into one factory, and to connect the supply of parts from the rest of the factories by an intricate system of overhead conveyors. The main assembly floor had a maze of automated conveyors converging from all angles to bring parts directly to each assembly station.
The highlight was the engine line conveyor, which was hailed as the longest in the world. Each six-cylinder engine traveled one-half mile from the engine plant to the assembly line in an enclosed conveyor.
Because of the new line, annual production at the Buick plant was boosted from , vehicles to , General Motors engineers also pioneered the concept of interchangeable parts. In , Durant arranged to have the wooden body of a Buick Model 10 cut in half lengthwise and crosswise.
He then tinkered with the chassis, increasing its length and width. The result was christened the Oldsmobile Model 20 and it went into production a few months later. Then, each vehicle was stripped down into a pile of components. The parts were jumbled into a heap and reassembled by a couple of mechanics. The three cars were then driven miles around the track. Use of standardized, interchangeable parts for various models eventually helped GM grow into an industry giant, thanks to the efforts of Alfred Sloan.
While many individuals have led GM over the last century, Sloan is more synonymous with the company than all the others. He served as CEO from to Sloan also served as chairman of the board from to During that time, GM experienced steady growth and phenomenal market share. When Sloan took over the reins, GM was little known outside of Wall Street, which recognized it as a giant holding company that controlled several nearly autonomous automakers and various parts-making subsidiaries.
General Motors was comprised of a dozen car companies that were each managed separately, with a high degree of product overlap. Sloan implemented systematic management and created divisions that were managed objectively from a corporate headquarters. Top management in Detroit focused on the numbers generated by each division, such as sales, market share and inventory.
They left the daily operations up to division heads scattered in Dayton, Flint, Lansing, Pontiac and other towns. Many of those general managers were rewarded for their performance by being promoted to the headquarters office. In the early s, too many cars were being manufactured for market conditions and not enough raw materials were available to sustain production.
In , he established a general technical committee of engineers from the various divisions to discuss problems of common interest. Sloan noted a gap in the GM model spectrum between Chevrolet and Oldsmobile in He decided to make a car largely from standard Chevrolet parts to fill the void. Sloan suggested combining an Oldsmobile engine and a Chevrolet chassis, to be assembled in Chevrolet plants. The new car was called a Pontiac and the strategy proved to be a profitable success, because of the small capital investment involved due to little or no need for new tools, jigs and fixtures.
By the mids, Buick plants were making chassis and engine parts for use in Oldsmobile and Pontiac vehicles. All three brands also shared similar body shells. At the same time, Chevrolet shared many under-the-hood parts with Cadillac and LaSalle, which was introduced in to fill a price gap between Buick and Cadillac.
Only then did model changes, and the multi-product line along with them, become an important force in the evolving industry and firm structure. For instance, the New Departure Div.
Bristol, CT made ball bearings, while the Saginaw Div. Saginaw, MI mass-produced steering gear for GM vehicles. That required the automaker to pioneer numerous changeover techniques. By adopting state-of-the-art mass production techniques and incorporating annual styling changes into its vehicles, Chevrolet sales rose dramatically during the s. In , Sloan hired a former Ford engineer named William Knudsen. His first task at GM was to develop a long-range production plan for Chevrolet. By the late s, Chevrolet sold more than 1 million vehicles and became the No.
Some GM executives had wanted to get rid of the money-losing Chevrolet division. Knudsen pioneered the concept of flexible mass production. At the time, manufacturing at GM was far more decentralized and much less vertically integrated than at Ford.
This alone gave GM far more flexibility than Ford. Machines were not permanently dedicated to a single part or operation. Instead, their operations were dedicated through jigs and fixtures, which were much less expensive to replace or update. He also convinced GM executives that a Fisher Body plant should be attached to each assembly plant so that body production could be coordinated precisely with the daily output of each plant.
In late , when Chevrolet switched from a four- to a six-cylinder engine, the entire changeover only took 3 weeks. As a result, when the new model was introduced in January , buyers did not have to wait. Within 8 months, GM plants turned out more than 1 million six-cylinder engines. He was promoted to president of the Chevrolet division in , and served as president of GM from to , when President Franklin D. When GM was founded years ago, wood ruled in the auto industry. Bodies, chassis and wheels were made from ash, elm and maple following centuries-old carriagebuilding techniques.
After they were sawed and shaped, individual pieces of wood were glued and screwed together in a labor-intensive process. Until the mids, most car bodies were framed in wood and covered with sheet metal skins.
But, it was an expensive and time-consuming process. Among other things, wood took months to cure and required special kilns to reduce moisture. The auto industry consumed more hardwood lumber than the furniture and building trades combined.
To supply that thirst, it owned huge tracks of timberland in Arkansas and Michigan, and operated several saw mills. Engineers at Fisher Body developed jigs and fixtures for mass-production applications. As a result, large body parts, such as doors and roofs, could be built-up as subassemblies.
The technologies for product assembly and manufacturing evolve along with the advancement of enabling technologies such as material science, robotics, machine intelligence as well as information and communication. The enabling technologies emerging offer new opportunities for moving up the level of automation, optimization and reliability in product assembly and ma- facturing beyond what have been possible. We see assembly and manufacturing becoming more Intelligent with the perception-driven robotic autonomy, more flexible with the human-robot coupled collaboration in work cells, and more in- grated in scale and complexity under the distributed and networked frameworks. On the other hand, the shift in key product features and engineering requirements dictates the new technologies and tools for assembly and manufacturing to be - veloped. MicroMacro Assembly and Disassembly.
One of the greatest industrial feats of World War II — indeed of all time — was the massive production of military aircraft by American manufacturers. America's sudden entry into the war required Joshua Stoff. America's sudden entry into the war required its typically small aircraft "job shops" to convert quickly to assembly-line techniques to meet the urgent demand for fighters and bombers. In many ways, Allied victory depended on the success of this conversion. How Americans heroically met the challenge is the focus of this fascinating pictorial history. Over rare photographs — most never published before — comprise an eye-filling chronicle of men and women hard at work in a crucial wartime industry: hooking up an engine, hanging a propeller, riveting the "skin" on a fuselage and performing many other tasks.
Не думаю, - сказала Росио. - На ней была майка с британским флагом. Беккер рассеянно кивнул: - Хорошо.
Бело-красно-синие волосы, майка, серьга с черепом в ухе. Что. - Больше .SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: How a car is made: Part 1-6
Ты знаешь, что я не могу… Она фыркнула и снова повернулась к клавиатуре.
Казалось, вспыхнувшая на его глазах перепалка абсолютно его не касается. Очевидно, Стратмор вдруг задумался:. У Сьюзан имелся на это ответ. - Коммандер, - она снова попыталась настоять на своем, - нам нужно поговорить. - Минутку! - отрезал Стратмор, вопросительно глядя на Хейла. - Мне нужно закончить разговор. - Он повернулся и направился к своему кабинету. Сьюзан открыла рот, но слова застряли у нее в горле. Хейл - Северная Дакота. Она замерла и непроизвольно задержала дыхание, чувствуя на себе взгляд Хейла.
Это было дыхание дьявола, ищущее выхода и вырывающееся из закрытой пещеры. Стратмор так и остался стоять на коленях, парализованный ужасающим, неуклонно приближающимся звуком. Самый дорогой компьютер в мире на его глазах превращался в восьмиэтажный ад.
Стратмора видно не. В ужасе от того, что ее ожидало, она направилась к кабинету шефа. Когда Сьюзан уже сделала несколько шагов, что-то вдруг показалось ей странным.
Если он знал, что мы его ликвидируем, то естественно было бы ожидать, что он накажет нас, допустив исчезновение кольца. В разговор вмешался новый участник. - Д-директор. Все повернулись к экрану. Это был агент Колиандер из Севильи.
Он перегнулся через плечо Беккера и заговорил в микрофон: - Не знаю, важно ли это, но я не уверен, что мистер Танкадо знал, что он пал жертвой покушения. - Прошу прощения? - проговорил директор. - Халохот был профессионалом высокого уровня, сэр.
Со своего места Сьюзан могла видеть всю комнату, а также сквозь стекло одностороннего обзора ТРАНСТЕКСТ, возвышавшийся в самом центре шифровалки. Сьюзан посмотрела на часы. Она ждет уже целый час. Очевидно, Анонимная рассылка Америки не слишком торопится пересылать почту Северной Дакоты. Сьюзан тяжело вздохнула.
Несмотря на все попытки забыть утренний разговор с Дэвидом, он никак не выходил у нее из головы. Она понимала, что говорила с ним слишком сурово, и молила Бога, чтобы в Испании у него все прошло хорошо. Мысли Сьюзан прервал громкий звук открываемой стеклянной двери.
- Я не. Я сейчас же отправлю ее домой. - Боюсь, вы опоздали, - внушительно заявил Беккер и прошелся по номеру. - У меня к вам предложение. - Ein Vorschlag? - У немца перехватило дыхание. - Предложение. - Да. Я могу прямо сейчас отвести вас в участок… - Беккер выразительно замолчал и прищелкнул пальцами.
ГЛАВА 104 Сьюзан вышла из комнаты. ОБЪЕКТ: ДЭВИД БЕККЕР - ЛИКВИДИРОВАН Как во сне она направилась к главному выходу из шифровалки. Голос Грега Хейла эхом отдавался в ее сознании: Сьюзан, Стратмор меня убьет, коммандер влюблен в .
Он увидел уборщика и подошел к. - Has visto a una nina? - спросил он, перекрывая шум, издаваемый моечной машиной. - Вы не видели девушку.
Но Стратмор смотрел на молодого сотрудника лаборатории систем безопасности. Коммандер спускался по лестнице, ни на мгновение не сводя с него глаз.
Мужчина выхватил оружие и выстрелил. Острая боль обожгла грудь Беккера и ударила в мозг. Пальцы у него онемели.