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Manufacturing commercial knots and elements of wire communication of general application

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VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Robust industrial communication - from the generation to the distribution of power

In this chapter, we present various opportunities of using optical wireless communication OWC technologies in each sector of optical communication networks. Moreover, challenges of optical wireless network implementations are investigated. We characterized the optical wireless communication channel through the channel measurements and present different models for the OWC link performance evaluations.

In addition, we present some technologies for the OWC performance enhancement in order to address the last-mile transmission bottleneck of the system efficiently. To achieve this, we employ advanced modulation format and digital signal processing DSP techniques in the offline and real-time mode of the operation.

The proposed configuration has the capability to support different applications, services, and multiple operators over a shared optical fiber infrastructure. Optical Communication Technology.

The Internet is experiencing high growth with varieties of bandwidth-intensive mobile applications on an unprecedented scale. One of the potential reasons for the growth is the Internet of Things IoT technologies that have brought exceptional revolutions into the number of devices in the network.

Conceptually, IoT entails ubiquitous existence of a variety of things such as mobile phones, sensors, actuators, and radio-frequency identification RFID tags. These entities are capable of interacting with each other as well as cooperating with their neighbors in order to accomplish common goals via unique addressing scheme [ 1 ]. It is envisaged that by the year , billions of devices with an average of six to seven devices per person will be connected to the Internet [ 2 ].

The fifth generation 5G wireless communication systems in which millimeter-wave mm-wave and massive multiple-input multiple-output M-MIMO antenna technologies are expected to be integrated are the promising solutions for supporting the huge amount of anticipated devices. However, the radio-frequency RF -based wireless mobile technologies transmission speeds are limited by the available RF spectrum in the regulated RF spectrum.

Moreover, because of various advanced technologies being employed in the optical communications, there have been considerable advancements in the optical system capacity, network reach, and number of supported users. Currently, one of the major challenges is the capability to support various service requirements so as to achieve elastic and ubiquitous connections [ 4 ]. Consequently, convergence of wireless and optical networks is highly essential for cost-effective and pervasive network penetration for the next-generation network NGN.

The convergence will help in exploiting the mobility benefit offered by the wireless connectivity and the inherent bandwidth provided by the optical systems.

This will help in achieving the anticipated capacity and energy-efficiency objectives of the NGNs [ 3 ]. Furthermore, optical wireless communication OWC system is one of attractive broadband access technologies that offer high speed as well as improved capacity. Consequently, the OWC can attend to the bandwidth requirements of different services and applications of the NGNs at relatively low cost [ 3 , 5 ].

Furthermore, in mobile communication, resources re-use is an important requirement in order to enhance the network coverage and capacity.

OWC technology is able to meet this requirement with the aid of spatial diversity [ 5 , 6 ]. OWC link can be of different configurations such as. Out of these configurations, the LOS links have the highest data rates, lowest bit error rate BER performance, and less complex protocol. These features make LOS link the extensively employed configuration in the outdoor applications.

Nevertheless, the major deficiencies of the LOS link are lack of mobility and susceptibility to blockage. The diffuse and nondirected LOS configurations, on the other hand, give better mobility advantages and are less susceptible to shading.

However, noise, path loss, and multipath-induced dispersion relatively hinder their achievable data rate for high-speed links. Furthermore, coherent scheme can also be employed to enhance channel usage. Implementation of coherent scheme relatively improves system performance at the expense of increased system complexity. This can be attributed to the fact that, precise wave-front matching between the incoming signal and the local oscillator LO is required to guarantee efficient coherent reception.

Furthermore, DD application is uncomplicated as just low-cost transceiver devices are required without the necessity for the intricate high-frequency circuit designs relative to coherent systems [ 5 , 6 ]. A terrestrial OWC system consists of the transmitter, channel, and receiver. Figure 1 illustrates a schematic of a terrestrial OWC system.

The source at the transmitter generates information waveforms which are modulated onto an optical carrier. The optical field produced is then radiated over the atmospheric channel to the destination. The optically collected field at the receiver is then transformed to an electrical current. The detected electrical current is processed in order to recover the original transmitted information [ 8 ]. However, the received information may not be an exact replica of the original transmitted information because of the transmission loss experienced over the channel by the signal.

This factor significantly limits the performance of wireless communications systems. The transmission loss is mainly due to the resultant effects of scattering and absorption which are being introduced by the molecular constituents and aerosols along the transmission path. Therefore, scattering and wavelength-dependent absorption are the key components of atmospheric attenuation.

Since absorption is a function of wavelength and wavelength selective, there are a range of wavelength windows that experience comparatively minimal absorptions.

These transmittance windows in the absorption spectra of the atmospheric molecules are as shown in Figure 2. In general, the wavelength ranges of — nm and — nm commonly used in the current OWC equipment are located in the atmospheric transmission windows where molecular absorption is negligible. This helps in mitigating the atmospheric absorption losses. Furthermore, certain wavelength windows that are located in the region of four specific wavelengths such as , , , and nm normally experience an attenuation of less than 0.

It is worth noting that the and nm transmission windows coincide with the standard transmission windows of fiber communication systems. For this reason, majority of commercial OWC systems operate at these two windows in order to encourage the use of the available off-the-shelf components. Also, the UV wavelength is less susceptible to solar and other background interferences [ 8 ]. Furthermore, it is worth noting that —nm wavelengths are compatible with erbium-doped fiber amplifier EDFA technology.

This is highly essential in order to achieve high-power and high-data rate systems. Moreover, —nm wavelengths enable transmission of about 50—65 times more average output power than can be transmitted at — nm for a specified eye safety classification. This can be attributed to the low transmission of the human eye at these wavelengths [ 9 ].

One of the key factors for laser transmitter design is the safety issue. The infrared IR light sources can be likely safety threats to human if they are operated inappropriately. Also, exposure to certain optical beams may injure human skin and eye. For instance, the eye can focus wavelength range of 0.

Consequently, the permissible average transmission power for lasers operating at nm is relatively higher. Therefore, they are usually employed for longer transmission range [ 5 , 9 ]. Figure 3 depicts the absorption of the eye at different wavelengths. At —nm spectral range, the cost of optical sources and detectors are relatively low; however, the eye safety regulations are mainly strict. The guidelines on the safety of optical beams have been specified by several international standard organizations such as [ 5 , 9 ].

The aforementioned organizations have established mechanisms for categorizing lasers in accordance with their type and power.

Generally, the classification is based on four groups which are Class 1 through Class 4. Comparatively, Class 1 is the least powerful whereas Class 4 is the most powerful. Also, each of the classes is specified by the accessible emission limits AELs metric. The AEL is determined by the optical source wavelength, the emitter geometry, and the source intensity [ 5 , 9 ].

In the subsequent section, we present the major OWC categories. There have been growing research interests in the OWC system as a viable solution to attend to the NGN requirements in cost-effective ways. The two generic groups of OWC are indoor and outdoor optical wireless communications. Figure 4 shows the electromagnetic spectrum for different applications. Furthermore, the spectrum illustrates the frequency and wavelength ranges being occupied by the bands in OWC. It is of high importance especially in scenarios in which the probability of offering network connectivity through physical wired connections is challenging.

Furthermore, the outdoor OWC employs optical carrier for transporting information from one point to another over an unguided channel that could be an atmosphere or a free space. The FSO communication systems operate at the near IR frequencies and are classified into terrestrial and space optical links. These consist of building-to-building, satellite-to-ground, ground-to-satellite, satellite-to-satellite, and satellite-to-airborne platforms unmanned aerial vehicles [UAVs] or balloons [ 10 ].

The tree diagram in Figure 5 shows the OWC system classification. The underwater wireless communications are a process of transmitting data in unguided water environments via wireless carriers such as acoustic wave, RF wave, and optical wave. Basically, the UOWC uses optical wave as wireless carrier for an unguided data transmission. The UOWC systems are applicable in disaster precaution, offshore exploration, environmental monitoring, as well as military operations.

Nevertheless, UOWC systems are susceptible to absorption and scattering which are normally created by the underwater channels.

These conditions lead to severe attenuation of optical wave and eventually hindered the system performance.

Different viable techniques have been presented in the literature to attend to the associated technical challenges of a UOWC. One of such is an underwater wireless sensor network UWSN.

Figure 6 depicts a UWSN with aerospace and terrestrial communications. The network entities are capable of performing tasks like processing, sensing, and communication in order to sustain collaborative monitoring of the underwater environment. In this configuration, the receiver detects the light beam in the direct path to the transmitter.

Due to the fact that light sources like lasers are generally used in the PTP-LOS-based systems, precise pointing between the transceiver is essential. Hence, the requirement limits the performance of UOWC systems in turbulent water environments. Also, this can even be more stringent when the transmitter and the receiver of the underwater vehicles are not stationary [ 11 ].

The light sources like high-power light-emitting diodes LEDs that have large divergence angle are used for the UOWC transmission from one node to multiple nodes. The broadcast nature of this configuration helps in relaxing the requirement for precise pointing. Nonetheless, the scheme is prone to aquatic attenuation which is as a result of the large interaction area with the water.

Consequently, this limits D-LOS application to comparatively short distances and lower data rate communications [ 11 ]. Due to the fact that there is no laser or other light sources in the retroreflector end, its power consumption, weight, and volume are significantly reduced. However, the R-LOS performance is limited by the backscatter of the transmitted optical signal that may interfere with the reflected signal [ 11 ].

The concept of this configuration is that the transmitter launches the beam of light to the sea surface in such a way that the angle of incidence is greater than the critical angle.

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Understanding and Using DICOM, the Data Interchange Standard for Biomedical Imaging

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In this chapter, we present various opportunities of using optical wireless communication OWC technologies in each sector of optical communication networks. Moreover, challenges of optical wireless network implementations are investigated. We characterized the optical wireless communication channel through the channel measurements and present different models for the OWC link performance evaluations. In addition, we present some technologies for the OWC performance enhancement in order to address the last-mile transmission bottleneck of the system efficiently. To achieve this, we employ advanced modulation format and digital signal processing DSP techniques in the offline and real-time mode of the operation. The proposed configuration has the capability to support different applications, services, and multiple operators over a shared optical fiber infrastructure. Optical Communication Technology. The Internet is experiencing high growth with varieties of bandwidth-intensive mobile applications on an unprecedented scale.

How the Internet Travels Across Oceans

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An electrical cable is an assembly of one or more wires running side by side or bundled, which is used to carry electric current. A cable assembly is the composition of one or more electrical cables and their corresponding connectors. Cable assemblies can also take the form of a cable tree or cable harness , used to connect many terminals together. The term cable originally referred to a nautical line of specific length where multiple ropes are combined to produce a strong thick line that was used to anchor large ships. As electric technology developed, people changed from using bare copper wire to using groupings of wires and various sheathing and shackling methods that resembled the mechanical cabling so the term was adopted for electrical wiring. In the 19th century and early 20th century, electrical cable was often insulated using cloth, rubber or paper. Plastic materials are generally used today, except for high-reliability power cables. The term has also come to be associated with communications because of its use in electrical communications. Electrical cables are used to connect two or more devices, enabling the transfer of electrical signals or power from one device to the other.

Challenges and Opportunities of Optical Wireless Communication Technologies

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The Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine DICOM Standard specifies a non-proprietary data interchange protocol, digital image format, and file structure for biomedical images and image-related information. The fundamental concepts of the DICOM message protocol, services, and information objects are reviewed as background for a detailed discussion of the functionality of DICOM; the innovations and limitations of the Standard; and the impact of various DICOM features on information system users.

The internet consists of tiny bits of code that move around the world, traveling along wires as thin as a strand of hair strung across the ocean floor. Nearly , miles of cable already connect the continents to support our insatiable demand for communication and entertainment.

Veterans of the high-definition TV wars of the s, the authors, social scientists as well as technologists, came to see themselves as "chroniclers and students of an intriguing and serious techno-economic conflict. In a broad account accessible to generalist and specialist alike, they address the current national debate about the development of a national information infrastructure, locating the debate in a broad historical narrative that illuminates how we got here and where we may be going, and outlining a bold vision of an open communications infrastructure that will cut through the political gridlock that threatens this "information highway.

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