The fiber reinforcement provides the structural performance required of the final part. The fibers or filaments come in many chemical types and forms and are the primary contributor to the stiffness, strength and other properties of the composite. The dominant chemical types of commercially available fibers are: fiberglass, aramid, carbon, polyester and vectran. Other fiber types may be suitable for special applications.
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Archivos de Bronconeumologia http: www. Other types of articles such as reviews, editorials, special articles, clinical reports, and letters to the Editor are also published in the Journal. It is a monthly Journal that publishes a total of 12 issues, which contain these types of articles to different extents.
All manuscripts are sent to peer-review and handled by the Editor or an Associate Editor from the team. The Journal is published both in Spanish and English. Therefore, the submission of manuscripts written in either Spanish or English is welcome. Translators working for the Journal are in charge of the corresponding translations. See more Access to any published article, in either language, is possible through the Journal web page as well as from Pubmed, Science Direct, and other international databases.
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Man-made mineral fibers are produced using inorganic materials and are widely used as thermal and acoustic insulation. These basically include continuous fiberglass filaments, glass wool fiberglass insulation , stone wool, slag wool and refractory ceramic fibers. Likewise, in the last 2 decades nanoscale fibers have also been developed, among these being carbon nanotubes with their high electrical conductivity, mechanical resistance and thermal stability.
Both man-made mineral fibers and carbon nanotubes have properties that make them inhalable and potentially harmful, which have led to studies to assess their pathogenicity. The aim of this review is to analyze the knowledge that currently exists about the ability of these fibers to produce respiratory diseases.. Fibers are long particles whose length is several times more than their diameter. It is accepted that thicker fibers, although they could be inhaled, are usually retained in the upper respiratory tract, and the shorter ones could be phagocyted by the alveolar macrophages and eliminated.
Dosage refers to the quantity of fibers that reach the pulmonary parenchyma and can cause pathology when their concentration surpasses the capability of the defense mechanisms to eliminate them. Durability, or biopersistence, is the time that a fiber can remain in the lungs. It is determined by the rate at which the fiber can be dissolved or broken down once deposited, which is related to its chemical composition.
These 3 characteristics of fibers condition their capacity to reach, remain in and accumulate in the lungs, 1 resulting in lung pathology.. There are various types of fibers that can be classified in several ways. First of all, the fibers are identified as either natural as they are found in nature or man-made fabricated by humans. Both groups, natural and man-made, can be divided into organic or inorganic fibers.
Organic natural fibers can be of animal wool or vegetable cotton origin. Within the inorganic natural fibers, there is a wide variety, and from this group asbestos stands out due to its ability to cause disease. Organic man-made fibers are those created by man using organic material. Within this group are artificial fibers, in which the raw material is natural but the process for obtaining the fiber is manufactured, like cellulose polymers, or synthetic, in which both the raw material and the process for obtaining the fiber are human fabrications, such as in the case of acrylic fibers or nylon..
Inorganic man-made fibers, produced by humans using inorganic material, can have a vitreous or crystalline structure. These are the most important man-made fibers due to the volume of their manufacturing and consumption, and they are generally known as man-made mineral fibers MMMF. MMMF have some similarities with asbestos fibers, including the same aerodynamic properties.
Nevertheless, while asbestos fibers generally tend to break up longitudinally, leading to long fibers that become thinner and thinner and can remain in the lungs over time, MMMF divide transversally, producing shorter and shorter segments that can be eliminated more effectively through the phagocytic system.
In spite of these differences, due to the fact that there is so much information about the relationship between the inhalation of asbestos and the development of pleuropulmonary pathology, for years there have also been studies evaluating the possible toxicity of MMMF in the lungs and pleura. Furthermore, starting 2 decades ago, we now have the capability to manipulate matter on a nanoscale, leading to the appearance of nanoparticles, some of which have a fiber structure.
The possibility that nanofibers could penetrate in the organism by inhalation and cause respiratory pathology has likewise awakened concern, and in recent years there have also been studies assessing their pathogenicity.. The objective of this review is to analyze the knowledge that exists today about MMMF and respiratory disease while updating a previous review that was published by this journal in Afterwards, and due to growing interest, we will specifically discuss nanofibers and the possibility of their causing respiratory pathology.
The last part of this review provides the recommendations of national and international organisms for the use of MMMF and nanofibers..
MMMF are produced by melting raw material and giving it the desired shape by cooling it quickly. The most commonly used raw material is composed of silicates and varying quantities of inorganic oxides.. MMMF are typically classified into 3 types: continuous filament glass, mineral wool and refractory ceramic fibers RCF. As they become fragmented, the fibers break up into shorter fibers, but due to their thickness between 3.
They began to be manufactured at the beginning of the 20th century and they are basically used to reinforce materials used in insulation, electronics and construction industries.. Mineral wools are masses of interlocking, disorganized fibers with variable lengths and diameters, some of which may be inhalable. Mineral wools are classically divided into 3 types: fiberglass, stone wool and slag wool. Stone and slag wools were the first to be manufactured in the mid-nineteenth century, with a peak production in the mid-twentieth century, when glass wool fiberglass insulation gained in importance.
They are basically used for thermal and acoustic insulation, typically in buildings, vehicles and appliances, as well as for inflammable materials and flame-retardant protection..
They are used in high-tech products, as high-efficiency air filters, or in aerospace insulation.. Since , a new family of mineral wools has been developed, known as high-temperature insulation wool, which is made of alkaline-earth silicates. They are less biopersistent than RCF, have similar physical properties and can substitute these in some applications.. Refractory ceramic fibers are a mix of aluminum, silica and other refractory oxides. Their fibers have a diameter of 1. They began to be commercialized between and , and they are relatively new compared with other MMMF.
They have several possible applications, but they are basically used as thermal insulation for high-temperature requirements, mainly at the industrial level.. Animal studies that evaluate the potential effects of MMMF on the respiratory tract have been done in rodents, particularly rats and hamsters. The latter are currently considered either imperfect or even inadequate for evaluating the toxicity of fibers in humans due to their lung architecture and ultrastructure, the excessive sensitivity of their pleura and the difficulty for developing lung cancer when exposed to mineral dust and biopersistent fibers.
There is a debate about the suitability of using the intrapleural and intraperitoneal pathway for evaluating the carcinogenic risk of inhaled fibers, since these methods of administration are different from the standard entry and circumvents the natural defense mechanisms of the organism.
Intracavitary instillation studies of different types of MMMF have often shown tumor induction, mostly mesotheliomas. For these reasons, today it is largely considered that the results of long-term, well-designed studies with inhaled administration are the best for predicting the effects on human health.
Towards the end of the s, a new generation of these studies, initiated by the Research and Consulting Company RCC with a much greater control over all working conditions, provided much more reliable results.
Below, we comment on the most significant of these, according to MMMF type.. Since the fibers that come from continuous filament glass are considered non-inhalable due to their size, studies have basically centered on fiberglass. Initially, the inhalation of glass wool fibers by rats showed no evidence of carcinogenesis. Two types of fiberglass microfibers deserve special mention as they are more biopersistent: and E. In an inhalation study in hamsters, it was observed that fiberglass did not induce lung tumors 18 but did induce lung fibrosis and one case of mesothelioma.
Cullen et al. Several studies that had evaluated the possibility of developing fibrosis or cancer through the chronic inhalation of these types of mineral wools obtained negative results. Two less biopersistent fibers that have been developed recently alkaline earth silicate [X] and a wool with a low silica and high aluminum content [HT] have been used in long-term inhalation studies in rats with no significant increase in the incidence of pleuropulmonary tumors.
Initial studies with chronic inhalation described the appearance of fibrosis and tumors in rodents, although the results were not considered reliable. Said concentration would be several times higher than the possible human exposure and would not be representative of that found in the workplace.
Thus, while in humans occupational exposure is approximately 0. More studies are considered necessary with exposures to lower particle and fiber concentrations in animal experiments in order to properly assess these results. Although in vitro studies are not considered appropriate for evaluating the toxicity of fibers, 1 the International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC 31 considered in that, overall, this type of studies are useful for discriminating between primary and secondary genotoxicity.
They also may help detect potential adverse effects of new fibers and identify their mechanisms of action. For example, studies in cell cultures have shown that fiber toxicity is directly related with their length, as well as the fact that MMMF induce neoplastic transformation 32,33 and genetic damage.
Asbestos fibers can produce 2 types of neoplasms in humans: malignant mesothelioma and lung cancer LC. Due to the similar forms of the different MMMF and asbestos fibers, epidemiologic studies in populations exposed to MMMF have been especially based on the study of these 2 types of neoplasms; when we refer to them in this document, we will use the term respiratory tract cancer.. There are 2 large cohort studies that have been completed, one in the Unites States and one in Europe, and case—control studies from these cohorts.
All these studies initially provide most of the epidemiologic evidence about the potential risk for respiratory tract cancer and other tumors also associated with occupational exposure to continuous fiberglass filament and mineral wools. The cohort study in the US was begun in the s and initially included 16 workers at 17 plants that produced fiberglass and mineral wool.
The results were evaluated from the follow-up until 36 ; later, the cohort was extended, and in the end 32 workers were evaluated with a follow-up until The European cohort included 25 workers from 13 plants that manufactured fiberglass and mineral wool, with a follow-up until 37 that was then extended until The results of these studies are commented below according to the type of MMMF.
The results of other study cohorts are also mentioned.. European cohort 40 —No evidence was found of increased LC in workers exposed to continuous fiberglass filaments, although the population examined in this cohort was small..
Other studies 41,42 —Another 2 cohort studies also showed no evidence for increased respiratory tract cancer risk.. However, the incidence was greater among the workers who had been exposed less than 5 years. When we analyzed those who had been exposed for longer periods, this excess diminished and was no longer statistically significant.
Mortality was also not related with the duration of the exposure or with the accumulated exposure to inhalable fiberglass. Moreover, when adjusted for smoking, based on a sample of male workers from the cohort, it was determined that tobacco smoke could be responsible for this higher risk for LC seen in the workers.
There was no confirmed increase in the incidence of mesotheliomas or of any other non-respiratory neoplasms..
Case—control study from the US cohort 39,43 —None of the factors, such as the duration of the exposure, the mean exposure intensity, and the onset time of fiberglass exposure, were related with an increased risk for respiratory tract cancer.
Among the confounding factors in this study, smoking was a statistically significant predictor for LC risk.. European cohort 40,44 —In the fiberglass workers, a certain excess of LC was found, which was clearly reduced by adjusting for the levels of national mortality.
Thanks to its versatile nature, Fiberglass can be used for many applications to virtually any size. Concrete Coating Cost Learn more about the cost of applying concrete floor coatings. Depending on the application, stainless steel and non-metallic enclosure materials, such as polycarbonate and Fiberglass Reinforced Polyester FRP , can offer solid performance benefits. Key Words Reinforced concrete, prestressed concrete, chlorides, corrosion, corrosion protection, reinforcing steel, grout, corrosion inhibitors.
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Fiberglass , also called fibreglass and glass fibre , is material made from extremely fine fibers of glass. It is used as a reinforcing agent for many polymer products; the resulting composite material , properly known as fiber-reinforced polymer FRP or glass-reinforced plastic GRP , is called "fiberglass" in popular usage. Glassmakers throughout history have experimented with glass fibers, but mass manufacture of fiberglass was only made possible with the invention of finer machine tooling. In , Edward Drummond Libbey exhibited a dress at the World's Columbian Exposition incorporating glass fibers with the diameter and texture of silk fibers. This was first worn by the popular stage actress of the time Georgia Cayvan. What is commonly known as "fiberglass" today, however, was invented in by Russell Games Slayter of Owens-Corning as a material to be used as insulation. It is marketed under the trade name Fiberglas, which has become a genericized trademark.
About the Author DR. His professional field of interest is construction engineering and management, with a primary focus on international construction, construction finance, and strategic management. He has taught the basic courses in construction, facility design, and engineering and management of infrastructures, both in the Department of Civil Engineering at M. Over the past twenty-five years, Dr.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Copy of Fiberglass Manufacturing How Fiberglass Is Made
Archivos de Bronconeumologia http: www. Other types of articles such as reviews, editorials, special articles, clinical reports, and letters to the Editor are also published in the Journal. It is a monthly Journal that publishes a total of 12 issues, which contain these types of articles to different extents. All manuscripts are sent to peer-review and handled by the Editor or an Associate Editor from the team. The Journal is published both in Spanish and English. Therefore, the submission of manuscripts written in either Spanish or English is welcome. Translators working for the Journal are in charge of the corresponding translations.
Now in its revised and updated Second Edition, this volume is the most comprehensive and authoritative text in the rapidly evolving field of environmental toxicology. The book provides the objective information that health professionals need to prevent environmental health problems, plan for emergencies, and evaluate toxic exposures in patients. Coverage includes safety, regulatory, and legal issues; clinical toxicology of specific organ systems; emergency medical response to hazardous materials releases; and hazards of specific industries and locations. Nearly half of the book examines all known toxins and environmental health hazards.
Kanerva's Occupational Dermatology pp Cite as. Histopathology of dermatitis is nonspecific unless the fiberglass is itself visualized in the skin biopsy or skin tape stripping. Treatment is nonspecific except for taking measures to curtail exposure to fiberglass and where possible to identify sources of exposure. Skip to main content. Advertisement Hide. Reference work entry. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Adams RM Appendix: job descriptions with their irritants and allergens: insulation workers. In: Occupational skin disease, 3rd edn. Saunders, Philadelphia Google Scholar.
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InspectAPedia tolerates no conflicts of interest. We have no relationship with advertisers, products, or services discussed at this website. This document assists building buyers, owners or inspectors who need to identify asbestos materials or probable-asbestos in buildings by simple visual inspection. We provide photographs of asbestos containing materials and descriptive text of asbestos insulation and other asbestos-containing products to permit identification of definite, probable, or possible asbestos materials in buildings. Asbestos is safe and legal to remain in homes or public buildings as long as the asbestos materials are in good condition and the asbestos can not be released into the air. Here we provide a master list of manufactured products that contain asbestos. Our list of asbestos-containing materials is sorted by alphabetically by product or use. Contact us by posting a question or comment at the end of this page if you cannot find information you need.
If you've ever come in contact with fiberglass, you already know what it can do to your skin. The tiny fibers of glass from insulation wool can irritate your skin and eyes. If you experience too much contact with fiberglass, it can cause what's called irritant contact dermatitis , or inflammation of the skin. Breathing in fibers can also increase the difficulty of breathing. Is that the extent of the trouble fiberglass can cause, or are there more serious health effects? Fiberglass became popular in the United States as another insulating material -- asbestos -- was phased out of use. Asbestos, unlike fiberglass, is a naturally occurring silicate material found in rocks. Its known use goes back to the ancient Greeks, who admired it for its ability to withstand very high temperatures.
Cape Province. Mining methods. Asbestos exports and imports by countries and
Basalt fiber is a material made from extremely fine fibers of basalt , which is composed of the minerals plagioclase , pyroxene , and olivine. It is similar to fiberglass , having better physicomechanical properties than fiberglass, but being significantly cheaper than carbon fiber. It is used as a fireproof textile in the aerospace and automotive industries and can also be used as a composite to produce products such as camera tripods.
Fiberglass refers to a group of products made from individual glass fibers combined into a variety of forms. Glass fibers can be divided into two major groups according to their geometry: continuous fibers used in yarns and textiles, and the discontinuous short fibers used as batts, blankets, or boards for insulation and filtration. Fiberglass can be formed into yarn much like wool or cotton, and woven into fabric which is sometimes used for draperies. Fiberglass textiles are commonly used as a reinforcement material for molded and laminated plastics.
FiberglassSite does not make a profit on shipping. Our fiberglass manufacturing processes include the latest chop-hoop and helical filament winding, open-mold spray-up, resin transfer molding and vacuum assist methods.