Table of contents. The periodization of the creation of branch scientific-technical journals, coinciding with priorities of development of economy and science, is revealed. The enduring demand for the journal by industrial enterprises, scientific organizations, specialized higher educational establishments is substantiated. Keywords: scientific journal, higher education, industrial enterprise, branch exhibition, editorial board.
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Building material is any material which is used for construction purposes. Many naturally occurring substances, such as clay , rocks, sand , and wood , even twigs and leaves, have been used to construct buildings.
Apart from naturally occurring materials, many man-made products are in use, some more and some less synthetic. The manufacturing of building materials is an established industry in many countries and the use of these materials is typically segmented into specific specialty trades, such as carpentry , insulation , plumbing , and roofing work.
They provide the make-up of habitats and structures including homes. In history there are trends in building materials from being natural to becoming more man-made and composite ; biodegradable to imperishable; indigenous local to being transported globally; repairable to disposable; chosen for increased levels of fire-safety, and improved seismic resistance.. These trends tend to increase the initial and long term economic, ecological, energy, and social costs of building materials.
Initial economic cost of building materials is the purchase price. This is often what governs decision making about what materials to use. Sometimes people take into consideration the energy savings or durability of the materials and see the value of paying a higher initial cost in return for a lower lifetime cost.
For example, an asphalt shingle roof costs less than a metal roof to install, but the metal roof will last longer so the lifetime cost is less per year.
Some materials may require more care than others, maintaining costs specific to some materials may also influence the final decision. Risks when considering lifetime cost of a material is if the building is damaged such as by fire or wind, or if the material is not as durable as advertised. The cost of materials should be taken into consideration to bear the risk to buy combustive materials to enlarge the lifetime.
It is said that, 'if it must be done, it must be done well'. Pollution costs can be macro and micro. The macro, environmental pollution of extraction industries building materials rely on such as mining, petroleum, and logging produce environmental damage at their source and in transportation of the raw materials, manufacturing, transportation of the products, retailing, and installation.
An example of the micro aspect of pollution is the off-gassing of the building materials in the building or indoor air pollution. Red List building materials are materials found to be harmful. Also the carbon footprint , the total set of greenhouse gas emissions produced in the life of the material.
A life-cycle analysis also includes the reuse , recycling, or disposal of construction waste. Two concepts in building which account for the ecological economics of building materials are green building and sustainable development. The long term energy cost is the economic, ecological, and social costs of continuing to produce and deliver energy to the building for its use, maintenance, and eventual removal.
The initial embodied energy of a structure is the energy consumed to extract, manufacture, deliver, install, the materials. Social costs are injury and health of the people producing and transporting the materials and potential health problems of the building occupants if there are problems with the building biology.
Globalization has had significant impacts on people both in terms of jobs, skills, and self-sufficiency are lost when manufacturing facilities are closed and the cultural aspects of where new facilities are opened. Aspects of fair trade and labor rights are social costs of global building material manufacturing.
Brush structures are built entirely from plant parts and were used in primitive cultures such as Native Americans and  pygmy peoples in Africa  These are built mostly with branches, twigs and leaves, and bark, similar to a beaver 's lodge. These were variously named wikiups , lean-tos, and so forth.
An extension on the brush building idea is the wattle and daub process in which clay soils or dung , usually cow , are used to fill in and cover a woven brush structure. This gives the structure more thermal mass and strength. Wattle and daub is one of the oldest building techniques.
Snow and occasionally ice,  were used by the Inuit peoples for igloos and snow is used to build a shelter called a quinzhee. Ice has also been used for ice hotels as a tourist attraction in northern climates. Clay based buildings usually come in two distinct types. One being when the walls are made directly with the mud mixture, and the other being walls built by stacking air-dried building blocks called mud bricks. Other uses of clay in building is combined with straws to create light clay , wattle and daub , and mud plaster.
Wet-laid, or damp, walls are made by using the mud or clay mixture directly without forming blocks and drying them first.
The amount of and type of each material in the mixture used leads to different styles of buildings. The deciding factor is usually connected with the quality of the soil being used. Larger amounts of clay are usually employed in building with cob , while low-clay soil is usually associated with sod house or sod roof construction.
Rammed earth is both an old and newer take on creating walls, once made by compacting clay soils between planks by hand; nowadays forms and mechanical pneumatic compressors are used.
Soil, and especially clay, provides good thermal mass ; it is very good at keeping temperatures at a constant level. Homes built with earth tend to be naturally cool in the summer heat and warm in cold weather. Clay holds heat or cold, releasing it over a period of time like stone. People building with mostly dirt and clay, such as cob, sod, and adobe, created homes that have been built for centuries in western and northern Europe, Asia, as well as the rest of the world, and continue to be built, though on a smaller scale.
Some of these buildings have remained habitable for hundreds of years. Mud-bricks , also known by their Spanish name adobe are ancient building materials with evidence dating back thousands of years BC. Compressed earth blocks are a more modern type of brick used for building more frequently in industrialized society since the building blocks can be manufactured off site in a centralized location at a brickworks and transported to multiple building locations.
These blocks can also be monetized more easily and sold. Structural mud bricks are almost always made using clay, often clay soil and a binder are the only ingredients used, but other ingredients can include sand, lime, concrete, stone and other binders.
The formed or compressed block is then air dried and can be laid dry or with a mortar or clay slip. Sand is used with cement , and sometimes lime , to make mortar for masonry work and plaster. Sand is also used as a part of the concrete mix. An important low-cost building material in countries with high sand content soils is the Sandcrete block, which is weaker but cheaper than fired clay bricks.
Rock structures have existed for as long as history can recall. It is the longest lasting building material available, and is usually readily available. There are many types of rock throughout the world, all with differing attributes that make them better or worse for particular uses. Rock is a very dense material so it gives a lot of protection too; its main drawback as a material is its weight and awkwardness.
Its energy density is also considered a big drawback, as stone is hard to keep warm without using large amounts of heating resources. Dry-stone walls have been built for as long as humans have put one stone on top of another. Eventually, different forms of mortar were used to hold the stones together, cement being the most commonplace now.
The granite -strewn uplands of Dartmoor National Park, United Kingdom, for example, provided ample resources for early settlers. Circular huts were constructed from loose granite rocks throughout the Neolithic and early Bronze Age , and the remains of an estimated 5, can still be seen today.
Granite continued to be used throughout the Medieval period see Dartmoor longhouse and into modern times. Slate is another stone type, commonly used as roofing material in the United Kingdom and other parts of the world where it is found.
Stone buildings can be seen in most major cities; some civilizations built entirely with stone such as the Egyptian and Aztec pyramids and the structures of the Inca civilization. Thatch is one of the oldest of building materials known, Thatch is another word for grass; grass is a good insulator and easily harvested. Many African tribes have lived in homes made completely of grasses and sand year-round. In Europe, thatch roofs on homes were once prevalent but the material fell out of favor as industrialization and improved transport increased the availability of other materials.
Today, though, the practice is undergoing a revival. In the Netherlands, for instance, many new buildings have thatched roofs with special ridge tiles on top. Wood has been used as a building material for thousands of years in its natural state. Today, engineered wood is becoming very common in industrialized countries. Wood is a product of trees , and sometimes other fibrous plants, used for construction purposes when cut or pressed into lumber and timber, such as boards, planks and similar materials.
It is a generic building material and is used in building just about any type of structure in most climates. Wood can be very flexible under loads, keeping strength while bending, and is incredibly strong when compressed vertically.
There are many differing qualities to the different types of wood, even among same tree species. This means specific species are better suited for various uses than others. And growing conditions are important for deciding quality. Raw wood a log, trunk, bole becomes timber when the wood has been "converted" sawn, hewn, split in the forms of minimally-processed logs stacked on top of each other , timber frame construction, and light-frame construction.
The main problems with timber structures are fire risk and moisture-related problems. In modern times softwood is used as a lower-value bulk material, whereas hardwood is usually used for finishings and furniture. Historically timber frame structures were built with oak in western Europe, recently douglas fir has become the most popular wood for most types of structural building.
Many families or communities, in rural areas, have a personal woodlot from which the family or community will grow and harvest trees to build with or sell. These lots are tended to like a garden. This was much more prevalent in pre-industrial times, when laws existed as to the amount of wood one could cut at any one time to ensure there would be a supply of timber for the future, but is still a viable form of agriculture.
Bricks are made in a similar way to mud-bricks except without the fibrous binder such as straw and are fired "burned" in a brick clamp or kiln after they have air-dried to permanently harden them.
Kiln fired clay bricks are a ceramic material. Fired bricks can be solid or have hollow cavities to aid in drying and make them lighter and easier to transport. The individual bricks are placed upon each other in courses using mortar. Successive courses being used to build up walls, arches , and other architectural elements. They require more energy to create but are easier to transport and store, and are lighter than stone blocks.
Romans extensively used fired brick of a shape and type now called Roman bricks. This was due to lower costs with increases in brick  manufacturing and fire-safety in the ever crowding cities. The cinder block supplemented or replaced fired bricks in the late 20th century often being used for the inner parts of masonry walls and by themselves.
Structural clay tiles clay blocks are clay or terracotta and typically are perforated with holes. Cement bonded composites are made of hydrated cement paste that binds wood, particles, or fibers to make pre-cast building components. Various fiberous materials, including paper , fiberglass , and carbon-fiber have been used as binders.
Whilst we are dedicated to supplying sustainable high performance insulation solutions for enhanced energy efficiency in buildings, we also continually strive for improvements in our manufacturing and supply chain operations so to improve quality and minimise our impact on the environment. All Knauf Insulation production locations have state-of-the-art manufacturing equipment and meet the highest quality standards as well as they are supported by an ongoing research and development program. As the market leader and a non-stop innovator, quality excellence and sustainability are at the heart of everything we do; whilst we have a strong focus on the thermal performance of our products, our pursuit of sustainability has much wider horizons:. By maximising the amount of recycled glass cullet in the manufacture of our products, we minimise our need for mineral raw materials. Our work to ensure safe and legal operations in our supply chain has enabled us to achieve certification to the Building Research Establishment's responsible sourcing standard BES Partnering with Siemens , we are unlocking efficiency opportunities to reduce our carbon footprint, saving the equivalent annual energy usage of almost homes.
Base paper Body Stock : The base stock for plain or decorated coated papers and boards. It may be uncoated or pre-coated on the paper machine. Bond paper: Originally a cotton-content writing or printing paper designed for the printing of bonds, legal documents, etc. The term is now also applied to papers such as letterhead, business forms, social correspondence papers, etc. Construction paper: Sheathing paper, roofing, floor covering, automotive, sound proofing, industrial, pipe covering, refrigerator, and similar felts. Containerboard: Solid fiber or corrugated and combined board used in the manufacture of shipping containers and related products. Corrugated container: The most common type of box manufactured from containerboard, layers of linerboard and one layer of medium.
Expanded cork and cork boards with various materials that improve thermal and acoustic insulation, as well as energy efficiency in your home. The advantages of cork in an underlay and the comparison in terms of performance of this sustainable material with other materials. Amorim Decking Materials are a combination of incomparable functionality and luxurious aesthetics, bound together in a natural cork composite. Primary and final decking materials, used in both professional and recreational vessels, such as cruise ships, yachts and other pleasure crafts. The focus on new materials and technologies were considered to be directions that should be followed in order to foster a competitive landscape with major growth potential. Greater silence and comfort.
In addi - tion, under the state-owned MTE, the industries for the. Our Company Services. Market Potential and competition Plywood products have always its demand in market. This is the Myanmar Plywood company profile. The artisans make ox cart axles, ox cart irons, tyres, scissors, hammers, adzes, pickaxes, knives, hatchets, axes, digging hoes and mattocks. We are now enjoying 62 production lines of film faced plywood ,commercial plywood and LVL. Plywood from Rwanda - Free to use unique search engine of reliable, genuine and verified companies, suppliers, exporters, sellers, manufacturers, factories, traders, tradeleads of products and services from all over the world. Let us come together and create a sustainable future for plywood. The entire area of Manas National Park in order to be easily accessed by tourists is divided into three ranges namely the Panbari or the Western Range, the Bansbari or the Central….
Stroitel`nye Materialy №12
A concrete block is primarily used as a building material in the construction of walls. It is sometimes called a concrete masonry unit CMU. A concrete block is one of several precast concrete products used in construction. The term precast refers to the fact that the blocks are formed and hardened before they are brought to the job site.
Building material is any material which is used for construction purposes. Many naturally occurring substances, such as clay , rocks, sand , and wood , even twigs and leaves, have been used to construct buildings. Apart from naturally occurring materials, many man-made products are in use, some more and some less synthetic. The manufacturing of building materials is an established industry in many countries and the use of these materials is typically segmented into specific specialty trades, such as carpentry , insulation , plumbing , and roofing work. They provide the make-up of habitats and structures including homes. In history there are trends in building materials from being natural to becoming more man-made and composite ; biodegradable to imperishable; indigenous local to being transported globally; repairable to disposable; chosen for increased levels of fire-safety, and improved seismic resistance.. These trends tend to increase the initial and long term economic, ecological, energy, and social costs of building materials. Initial economic cost of building materials is the purchase price. This is often what governs decision making about what materials to use.
Expanded cork and cork boards with various materials that improve thermal and acoustic insulation, as well as energy efficiency in your home. The advantages of cork in an underlay and the comparison in terms of performance of this sustainable material with other materials. Amorim Decking Materials are a combination of incomparable functionality and luxurious aesthetics, bound together in a natural cork composite. The focus on new materials and technologies were considered to be directions that should be followed in order to foster a competitive landscape with major growth potential. Greater silence and comfort. Improve thermal and acoustic insulation, reducing noise and saving energy with solutions based on expanded cork and cork insulation boards with different materials for application on walls.
Myanmar Plywood Industries
Bioprocess Engineering for a Green Environment examines numerous bioprocesses that are crucial to our day-to-day life, specifically the major issues surrounding the production of energy relating to biofuels and waste management. The book also provides a detailed exploration of biocatalysts and their application to the food industry; bioplastics production; conversion of agrowaste into polysaccharides; as well as the importance of biotechnology in bio-processing. Numerous industries discharge massive amounts of effluents into our rivers, seas, and air systems. As such, two chapters are dedicated to the treatment of various pollutants through biological operation with hopes of achieving a cleaner, greener , environment. This book represents the most comprehensive study of bioprocessing—and its various applications to the environment—available on the market today. It was furthermore written with various researchers in mind, ranging from undergraduate and graduate students looking to enhance their knowledge of the topics presented to scholars and engineers interested in the bioprocessing field, as well as members of industry and policy-makers. He has been an active instructor and researcher over the past 12 years in such fields as bioprocessing fluidization engineering, hydrodynamics, mass transfer, biochemical engineering, environmental engineering and energy engineering. He has published over 70 peer reviewed papers and authored or edited three books. Bioprocess Engineering for a Green Environment. CRC Press , 4 thg 5, - trang.
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Developments in the Formulation and Reinforcement of Concrete, Second Edition, presents the latest developments on topics covered in the first edition. In addition, it includes new chapters on supplementary cementitious materials, mass concrete, the sustainably of concrete, service life prediction, limestone cements, the corrosion of steel in concrete, alkali-aggregate reactions, and concrete as a multiscale material. The book's chapters introduce the reader to some of the most important issues facing today's concrete industry.
Additives improve the properties of concrete: setting time, viscosity, porosity, mechanical resistance, etc. There are 9 families of additives: accelerators, retarders, plasticizers, flow promoters, air-entraining agents, anti-freezers, water-repellents and curing agents.
Briquetting Process We associate in manufacturing briquettes and briquetting plants for more than 10 years now. During the process there are chances of metal scraps getting contaminated with the microscopic ferrous particles which come from the tooling. Drying the briquette. Characteristics of briquetting press machine Screw briquetting press machine can produce both wood briquettes and charcoal briquettes.