Embed Size px x x x x A Symposium by Correspondence has been organised on behalf of RILEM on the use of waste materials and industrial by-products in the construction industry. Information about individual materials has been extracted from the national contributions and a chapter devoted to each waste in turn. The properties, occurrence, present uses and possible future applications of each waste are described. Blastfurnace slags and pulverised fuel ashes are the two materials which are being used to the greatest extent. Much of these two materials is used as fill but many more sophisticated uses are developing.
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- Quartz Glass Sands in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus: Production, Market and Forecast (7th edition)
Fundamentals of Machine Design-01VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Tata Steel - Solid Waste Utilisation - Greenfection - Catch It. Spread It.
During the construction, operation and repair of buildings and structures, construction products and structures from which they are erected are subjected to various physical, mechanical, physical and technological influences. A hydraulic engineer is required to competently choose the right material, product or structure that has sufficient durability, reliability and durability for specific conditions.
Building materials and products used in the construction, reconstruction and repair of various buildings and structures are divided into natural and artificial, which in turn are divided into two main categories: the first category includes: brick, concrete, cement, timber, etc. They are used during the construction of various elements of buildings walls, ceilings, coatings, floors. To the second category - special purposes: waterproofing, heat-insulating, acoustic, etc. Depending on the purpose, conditions of construction and operation of buildings and structures, appropriate building materials are selected that have certain qualities and protective properties from exposure to different external environments.
Given these features, any building material should have certain construction and technical properties. For example, the material for the outer walls of buildings should have the lowest thermal conductivity with sufficient strength to protect the room from the outside cold; material of the construction of irrigation and drainage purposes - water resistance and resistance to alternate wetting and drying; the coating material is expensive asphalt, concrete must have sufficient strength and low abrasion to withstand the loads from transport.
When classifying materials and products, it must be remembered that they must have good properties and qualities. Property - characteristics of the material, manifested in the process of processing, use or operation.
Quality - a set of material properties that determine its ability to meet certain requirements in accordance with its purpose. The properties of building materials and products are classified into three main groups: physical, mechanical, chemical, technological and etc. TO chemical they include the ability of materials to resist the action of a chemically aggressive environment, causing exchange reactions in them leading to the destruction of materials, a change in their initial properties: solubility, corrosion resistance, resistance to decay, hardening.
Physical properties : average, bulk, true and relative density; porosity, humidity, moisture loss, thermal conductivity. Mechanical properties : ultimate strengths in compression, tension, bending, shear, elasticity, ductility, stiffness, hardness. Technological properties : workability, heat resistance, melting, hardening and drying speed.
In Russia, the production of building materials arose in the distant past. Already in ancient times, our ancestors knew how to make clay bricks, air and hydraulic lime, and made extensive use of wood and natural stone. Building materials are the basis of our huge construction industry - industrial, residential, hydraulic, transport, etc.
The most important building materials include: metal, timber, cement, concrete, brick, stone, slate asbestos-cement , tile, rolled roofing and waterproofing materials thermal insulation, glass, etc. Our scientists, engineers and production innovators are successfully fighting for the further development of building materials, recognizing that expanding production and improving the quality of all basic building materials, especially metal, brick, cement and concrete, are one of the important conditions for material support for building a communist society.
Kazan scientists made a huge contribution to the development of modern construction. The first and most plausible judgments about the essence of the quality of materials and about the constituent particles of a substance were the judgments of the ancient Greek philosophers Democritus about or BC and Epicurus 34 BC. Their teachings on atomism arose under the influence of observations of the state and properties of natural stones, ceramics, bronze, and steel. Around the same time, the philosophy of the ancient Greek scientist Aristotle also came to be, which established 18 qualities of materials: fusibility-not fusibility, viscosity-brittleness, combustibility-incombustibility, etc.
Three known states of matter solid, liquid and gaseous and their relation to energy were expressed by Aristotle with four elements: earth, water, air and fire, which from the standpoint of physics was a definite achievement.
The Roman philosopher Titus Lucretius Car BC in his didactic poem "On the Nature of Things" set out his judgments about the nature of the properties of materials: " In this category of things, taking first place in it, diamonds will stand that they are not afraid of blows at all, and furthermore - solid stone and iron of a mighty fortress, as well as resistant copper, which rings when struck by bolts For the ancient period of science, its undivided nature by certain types of building materials is very characteristic.
To a large extent, it traces the general relationship between the quality of materials and their atomic composition, although, of course, genuine scientific chemical knowledge about the composition and properties was still very far away.
The theory was built mainly on guesses, intuitions, although there were amazing solutions, for example, in the 3rd century. Experts are still doing the same. A great contribution to the development of material science was made by the brilliant Russian scientists M. Lomonosov and D.
Lomonosov laid the foundations of advanced Russian philosophy and science, especially in the fields of chemistry, physics, and geology.
He was the founder of a course in physical chemistry and chemical atomistics, justifying the atomic-molecular structure of matter.
In he wrote "Introduction to True Physical Chemistry. In addition, MV. Lomonosov first wrote a book in Russian on metallurgy, developed the compositions of colored glasses and a method for manufacturing mosaic panels from them, expressed a hypothesis about the origin of amber, etc. Mendeleev discovered the most important regularity of nature - the periodic law, according to which the properties of elements are periodically dependent on the magnitude of their atomic mass.
He published the book "Fundamentals of Chemistry"; it describes, in particular, the atomic-molecular structure of a substance. Mendeleev also owns a publication on the basics of glass production. National and international congresses were convened periodically on the problems of further improving technologies and improving the quality of traditional and new materials. They urgently needed housing, industrial, civil, road, hydraulic, agricultural and other types of construction.
The development of practice at this stage in building materials science was to a certain extent hypertrophied in comparison with theory. The disclosure of theoretical principles and general laws was restrained by the need to quickly solve the problem of intensification of production of building materials and products to meet the urgent need for them in this difficult period of time.
The expansion of the production of materials was still caused by the need to restore housing and industrial assets after the Second World War. Construction was transferred to industrial methods, in particular, by factory manufacturing of products from reinforced concrete, conveyor production of precast and reinforced concrete. If in in our country 1. In - The volumes of output of products and structures made of light and cellular concrete increased in , 25 million m.
Accordingly, the capacity of the cement industry grew rapidly. If in cement production amounted to The number of varieties of cement amounted to The high level of development of this industry was also in many other countries.
Ceramic manufacturing has become a highly mechanized and automated industry in the building materials industry. In the second half of the twentieth century. Production and conveyor lines with an annual output of up to 1 million m of facing ceramic tiles and up to thousand, m of floor tiles were introduced. The cost of materials in the total cost of construction is at least half, for unique buildings and structures may be more.
The building materials industry is the most capacious; more than a billion tons of various components are processed annually in the country for these purposes. Freight rail transport is about a quarter loaded with transportation of building materials, river - more than half. The cost of building materials depends on the cost of their transportation.
When transporting materials over long distances, given the size of Russia, the cost can increase several times. To save the cost of construction should use materials produced near the building under construction.
It is advisable to organize the building materials industry as close as possible to the raw material base. Thus, using building net materials as much as possible, as they say. The cost of building materials includes various factors, but.
This may include the quality of products, the longevity of their work, heat and power costs of production, the possibility of processing waste, and even environmental aspects that ultimately affect the economy of production, the region, the country as a whole. If you do not provide for everything, then the initial small cost of the material can turn into significant costs for repairs, reconstruction, restoration of the environment, etc. All materials and products comply with certain state standardization GOST , developed on the basis of the latest achievements of science and technology.
In each standard there are: an exact definition of the material, classification by grades and grades, technical conditions for manufacturing, test methods, storage and transportation conditions.
GOST is a document having the force of law. In the designation of GOST, the first number means the serial number of the standard, the second - the year of its approval. In addition to the standards, a system of regulatory documents is operating, combined into Building Norms and Rules SNiP. SNiP is a set of regulatory documents on design, construction and building materials, mandatory for all organizations and enterprises. The first subgroup, which includes: a cement concretes heavy and light , products from them, including large blocks, panels and prefabricated reinforced concrete structures, which play a decisive role in the industrialization of construction; In the production of prefabricated reinforced concrete structures and parts, the USSR has long come to first place in the world; in , 50 million m3 were produced; b silicate concrete products and structures made of lime, sand, slag and ash and other industrial wastes with autoclave treatment pressure steaming ; along with the usual cement precast concrete, cheaper constructions of lightweight reinforced concrete are beginning to be used, as well as reinforced silicate concrete cementless beams, floor slabs and other structures; c asbestos-cement products - a large, independent subgroup of products roofing and corrugated wall sheets, tiles, cladding products, pipes, etc.
In connection with the rapid growth of cement production and the discovery of new powerful asbestos deposits in the USSR, a further significant expansion of the production of asbestos-cement products was ensured, including for building envelopes in industrial and residential buildings, as well as gypsum and gypsum concrete products; soil-cement and other soil adobe, etc.
These materials have limited limited special applications in those cases when concrete is required to be especially waterproof or resistant to aggressive environments; mortars - mixtures of one of the binders cement, lime, gypsum or their combination with water and fine aggregate, such as sand normal or light , for laying blocks and bricks masonry mortars , as well as for plastering walls, ceilings and etc.
The role of these solutions at construction sites is reduced due to the transition to large panels and blocks having a finished factory finish, as well as due to the use of dry plaster sheets gypsum and wood fiber. On large construction sites and in large cities, ready-made commercial mortars in the form of dry or wet mixtures of a given composition and color are produced by centralized mechanized installations or factories.
Ceramic materials in the USSR are undergoing major changes. Brick, which plays the role of the main wall material, is gradually replaced by more effective large panels and blocks concrete, silicate, from ceramic stones, etc. Although part of the brick is produced in a more efficient type perforated, enlarged, hollow and replaced by hollow ceramic blocks, brick buildings and structures are more expensive and time-consuming than large-panel and large-block buildings; therefore, the process of gradual displacement of brick in industrial construction by more advanced wall materials is logical.
Natural stone materials are called building materials and products obtained from rocks by machining methods crushing, splitting, sawing. As a result of such processing, natural stone materials almost completely preserve the physicomechanical properties of the rock from which they were obtained. Rocks - an accumulation of minerals of a more or less constant composition and properties. Rocks may consist of one or more minerals.
Mineral is a natural chemical compound, homogeneous in composition, structure and physical properties, formed as a result of various physicochemical processes occurring in the earth's crust. Igneous rocks were formed as a result of cooling and crystallization of magma - a molten mass of mainly silicate composition formed in the depths of the earth's crust. Depending on the cooling conditions of magma, igneous rocks are divided into deep - intrusive granite, diorite, gabbro, labradorite and erupted - effusive porphyry, diabase, basalt.
Sedimentary rocks were formed as a result of the destruction weathering of rocks under the influence of external conditions or as a result of sedimentation of substances from any medium.
By the nature of formation and composition, sedimentary rocks are divided into clastic - mechanical deposits sand, gravel, sandstone , clay, chemo and organogenic dolomite, gypsum, magnesite, limestone, chalk, diatomite, tripoli. Metamorphic rocks gneiss, marble, quartzite, shale were formed in the earth's crust as a result of the modification of sedimentary or igneous rocks under the influence of temperatures, pressure, etc.
The complexity of processing natural stone and the quality of products obtained from it depend on the mineralogical composition, structure structure, texture, porosity, fracture, machinability, abrasiveness, anisotropy and the physical and mechanical properties of the rock.
The rock structure is characterized by structural features, due to the size, shape and ratio of the minerals forming it. The structures are full crystalline, semi-crystalline, semi-crystalline and glassy. The structure largely determines the decorative qualities of the rock.
The texture of the rock is the relative location and distribution of the rock-forming minerals in the yen. Textures are massive, linearly parallel, banded, layered, porous.
During the construction, operation and repair of buildings and structures, construction products and structures from which they are erected are subjected to various physical, mechanical, physical and technological influences. A hydraulic engineer is required to competently choose the right material, product or structure that has sufficient durability, reliability and durability for specific conditions. Building materials and products used in the construction, reconstruction and repair of various buildings and structures are divided into natural and artificial, which in turn are divided into two main categories: the first category includes: brick, concrete, cement, timber, etc. They are used during the construction of various elements of buildings walls, ceilings, coatings, floors. To the second category - special purposes: waterproofing, heat-insulating, acoustic, etc. Depending on the purpose, conditions of construction and operation of buildings and structures, appropriate building materials are selected that have certain qualities and protective properties from exposure to different external environments.
US6699341B2 - Process for the fabrication of glass ceramic structures - Google Patents
Jump to navigation. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer v. The effect of solar radiation on temperature distribution in outdoor human—clothing—environment systems by Yasuhiro Shimazaki; Shojiro Goto; Atsumasa Yoshida; Takanori Yamamoto The present study investigates heat transfer in the human—clothing—environment system under solar radiation. A new thermal model integrating the solar radiation absorption by clothing, as well as heat conduction within the air layer and heat convection on the clothing surface, is presented. The heat transfer in this system is simply explained based on the heat conduction equation; heat transfer relating to solar radiation is added as the source of heat generation at the surface of clothing. The temperature distributions inside clothing are well predicted with variations in the amount of solar radiation, ambient temperature, air gap depth, and radiative properties.
Sanitary ware and process of production
This invention takes priority under 35 U. Chemical reactors which are based upon dense ion-conducting ceramic membranes are used for processes including oxygen separation, controlled oxidation reactions, and fuel cell applications. Similarly, fuel cells may be based upon electrically-insulating oxygen anion-conducting or proton-conducting membranes. Ceramic membrane reactors must be operated at elevated temperature in order to produce ion fluxes of sufficient magnitude for economically viable chemical reaction rates.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Steel Fabrication Industry. Commercial Metal Fabrication
This report is currently available in Russian language only. However, we can provide an English version of the report within 3 weeks after receiving a payment. This report is the seventh edition of the research of the glass sands market in the CIS countries. The purpose of the research is to analyze the market of quartz glass sands in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. The work is a desk study. The data of the sectoral and regional press, annual and quarterly reports of securities issuers, Internet sites of enterprises producing glassware, as well as telephone interviews were also attracted. Geography of the study : Russia, Ukraine and Belarus - a comprehensive detailed analysis of the market. Scope of the research: the report consists of 8 parts, contains pages, including 66 tables, 37 figures and 2 annexes. In the first chapter of the report, information is provided on the reserves of glass sands in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. The second chapter of the report is devoted to the review of existing technologies for the enrichment of quartz sand and the requirements for the quality of marketable products.
US3454386A - Method for making radiation induced crystallized glass - Google Patents
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The invention relates to the field of glass ceramic composite structures and methods for forming composite glass ceramic structures using a low temperature joining process. Glass ceramics, which generally consist of an inorganic, non-porous material having a crystalline phase and a glassy phase, are known for specialized applications. Such glass ceramics are manufactured by selecting suitable raw materials, melting, refining, homogenizing, and then hot forming the material into a glassy blank. After the glassy blank is cooled and annealed, a temperature treatment follows whereby the glassy blank is transformed into a glass ceramic by controlled volume crystallization ceramization. Ceramization is a two-step process; nuclei are formed within the glass at one temperature, and then grown at a higher temperature. The dual structure of the glass ceramic material can impart very special properties, including a very low coefficient of thermal expansion CTE. The remaining glassy phase which surrounds the crystals has a positive thermal expansion. Glass ceramics are useful in a wide variety of applications, such as mirror substrates for astronomical telescopes; mirror substrates for X-ray telescopes in satellites, optical elements for comet probes, weather satellites, and microlithography; frames and mirrors for ring-laser gyroscopes; distance gauges in laser resonators; measurement rods as standards for precision measurement technology, and other uses where very low CTE is important. Large segments of monolithic glass ceramic are often used for many of the applications listed above. However, these large segments of monolithic glass ceramic are often very massive.
LOW-COST HOUSING TECHNOLOGY. An East- West Perspective
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigation Jump to search This is a list of building materials. Many types of building materials are used in the construction industry to create buildings and structures. These categories of materials and products are used by architects and construction project managers to specify the materials and methods used for building projects. Some building materials like cold rolled steel framing are considered modern methods of construction, over the traditionally slower methods like blockwork and timber. Many building materials have a variety of uses, therefore it is always a good idea to consult the manufacturer to check if a product is best suited to your requirements. Contents1 Catalogs2 Industry standards3 See also4 Sources5 External linksCatalogsCatalogs distributed by architectural product suppliers are typically organized into these groups.
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Quartz Glass Sands in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus: Production, Market and Forecast (7th edition)
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Quartz Glass Sands in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus: Production, Market and Forecast (7th edition)
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Ceramics also known as fire clay is an inorganic, non-metallic solid article, which is produced by the art or technique of heat and subsequent cooling. The ceramics industry in India came into existence about a century ago and has matured over time to form an industrial base.
Nikolai Glinka, after graduating from the Moscow University in , conducted research for several years under the guidance of N D Zelinsky. He taught chemistry in Podolsk for twelve years, and was then transferred to Moscow in by the People's Comissanat of Education. He died in at the age of