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Factory fabrication means of mechanization and automation of managerial and engineering work

Factory fabrication means of mechanization and automation of managerial and engineering work

Industrial automation, Robotic Process Automation, test automation… What do the terms all mean!? Are robotics and automation the same thing? A lot of people wonder if automation is right for them. Business owners are asking "Should I invest in automation? Automation is a hot topic in many industries right now. It can refer to several things, not just robotics.

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Mass Production


Mechanization is the process of changing from working largely or exclusively by hand or with animals to doing that work with machinery. In an early engineering text a machine is defined as follows:. Every machine is constructed for the purpose of performing certain mechanical operations, each of which supposes the existence of two other things besides the machine in question, namely, a moving power, and an object subject to the operation, which may be termed the work to be done.

Machines, in fact, are interposed between the power and the work, for the purpose of adapting the one to the other. In some fields, mechanization includes the use of hand tools. In modern usage, such as in engineering or economics, mechanization implies machinery more complex than hand tools and would not include simple devices such as an ungeared horse or donkey mill.

Devices that cause speed changes or changes to or from reciprocating to rotary motion, using means such as gears , pulleys or sheaves and belts, shafts , cams and cranks , usually are considered machines. After electrification, when most small machinery was no longer hand powered, mechanization was synonymous with motorized machines.

It controls the operations of different machines automatically. Water wheels date to the Roman period and were used to grind grain and lift irrigation water. Water powered bellows were in use on blast furnaces in China in 31 AD. Trip hammers are shown crushing ore in De re Metallica Clocks were some of the most complex early mechanical devices. Clock makers were important developers of machine tools including gear and screw cutting machines, and were also involved in the mathematical development of gear designs.

Clocks were some of the earliest mass-produced items, beginning around Water powered bellows for blast furnaces, used in China in ancient times, were in use in Europe by the 15th century. De re Metallica contains drawings related to bellows for blast furnaces including a fabrication drawing.

Improved gear designs decreased wear and increased efficiency. Mathematical gear designs were developed in the mid 17th century. French mathematician and engineer Desargues designed and constructed the first mill with epicycloidal teeth ca.

In the 18th century involute gears , another mathematical derived design, came into use. Involute gears are better for meshing gears of different sizes than epicycloidal.

The Newcomen steam engine was first used, to pump water from a mine, in John Smeaton introduced metal gears and axles to water wheels in the mid to last half of the 18th century. The Industrial Revolution started mainly with textile machinery, such as the spinning jenny and water frame Demand for metal parts used in textile machinery led to the invention of many machine tools in the late s until the mids.

After the early decades of the 19th century, iron increasingly replaced wood in gearing and shafts in textile machinery. In the s self acting machine tools were developed. Machinery was developed to make nails ca. The Fourdrinier paper machine paper machine for continuous production of paper was patented in , displacing the centuries-old hand method of making individual sheets of paper. One of the first mechanical devices used in agriculture was the seed drill invented by Jethro Tull around The seed drill allowed more uniform spacing of seed and planting depth than hand methods, increasing yields and saving valuable seed.

In , the first bicycle was invented and used in Germany. Mechanized agriculture greatly increased in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries with horse drawn reapers and horse powered threshing machines.

Internal combustion began being used for tractors in the early twentieth century. Threshing and harvesting was originally done with attachments for tractors, but in the s independently powered combine harvesters were in use. In the mid to late 19th century, hydraulic and pneumatic devices were able to power various mechanical actions, such as positioning tools or work pieces. In food processing, pneumatic or hydraulic devices could start and stop filling of cans or bottles on a conveyor.

Power steering for automobiles uses hydraulic mechanisms, as does practically all earth moving equipment and other construction equipment and many attachments to tractors. Pneumatic usually compressed air power is widely used to operate industrial valves. By the early 20th century machines developed the ability to perform more complex operations that had previously been done by skilled craftsmen.

It replaced highly paid glass blowers and child labor helpers and led to the mass production of glass bottles. After factories were electrified , and electric motors and controls were used to perform more complicated mechanical operations. This resulted in mechanized processes to manufacture almost all goods. In manufacturing, mechanization replaced hand methods of making goods. Prime movers are devices that convert thermal, potential or kinetic energy into mechanical work.

Prime movers include internal combustion engines, combustion turbines jet engines , water wheels and turbines, windmills and wind turbines and steam engines and turbines. Powered transportation equipment such as locomotives, automobiles and trucks and airplanes, is a classification of machinery which includes sub classes by engine type, such as internal combustion, combustion turbine and steam.

Inside factories, warehouses, lumber yards and other manufacturing and distribution operations, material handling equipment replaced manual carrying or hand trucks and carts. In mining and excavation, power shovels replaced picks and shovels. Bulk material handling systems and equipment are used for a variety of materials including coal, ores, grains, sand, gravel and wood products.

Construction equipment includes cranes , concrete mixers , concrete pumps , cherry pickers and an assortment of power tools. Powered machinery today usually means either by electric motor or internal combustion engine. Before the first decade of the 20th century powered usually meant by steam engine, water or wind. Many of the early machines and machine tools were hand powered, but most changed over to water or steam power by the early 19th century.

Before electrification , mill and factory power was usually transmitted using a line shaft. Electrification allowed individual machines to each be powered by a separate motor in what is called unit drive. Unit drive allowed factories to be better arranged and allowed different machines to run at different speeds.

Unit drive also allowed much higher speeds, which was especially important for machine tools. A step beyond mechanization is automation. Early production machinery, such as the glass bottle blowing machine ca. By the s fully automatic machines, which required much less operator attention, were being used. The term is also used in the military to refer to the use of tracked armoured vehicles , particularly armoured personnel carriers , to move troops that would otherwise have marched or ridden trucks into combat.

In military terminology, mechanized refers to ground units that can fight from vehicles, while motorized refers to units that go to battle in vehicles but then dismount and fight without them. Thus, a towed artillery unit is considered motorized while a self-propelled one is mechanized.

When we compare the costs of using an internal combustion engine to a worker to perform work, we notice that an engine can perform more work at a comparative cost. In addition, the combined work capability of a human is also much lower than that of a machine. For example, it takes more than one and a half hour of hard labour to deliver only one kWh - which a small engine could deliver in less than one hour while burning less than one litre of petroleum fuel.

This implies that a gang of 20 to 40 men will require a financial compensation for their work at least equal to the required expended food calories which is at least 4 to 20 times higher. In most situations, the worker will also want compensation for the lost time, which is easily 96 times greater per day. Despite this being a low wage for hard labour, even in some of the countries with the lowest wages, it represents an energy cost that is significantly more expensive than even exotic power sources such as solar photovoltaic panels and thus even more expensive when compared to wind energy harvesters or luminescent solar concentrators.

For simplification, one can study mechanization as a series of steps. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Productivity improving technologies historical. Two involute gears , the left driving the right: Blue arrows show the contact forces between them. The force line or Line of Action runs along a tangent common to both base circles.

In this situation, there is no force, and no contact needed, along the opposite common tangent not shown. The involutes here are traced out in converse fashion: points of contact move along the stationary force-vector "string" as if it was being unwound from the left rotating base circle, and wound onto the right rotating base circle. Main article: Armoured warfare. See also: Energy and energy efficiency theories. London: John W. Beginning with the U. The Genius of China: years of science, discovery and invention.

New York: Simon and Schuster. An Encyclopedia of the History of Technology. London: Routledge. Science and Technology in the Industrial Revolution. University of Toronto Press. Archived from the original PDF on Renewable Energy.

Industrial and technological revolution. First Second Third Potential future. Category Commons. History of technology. History of technology domains History of biotechnology History of communication History of computing hardware History of electrical engineering History of materials science History of measurement History of medicine History of nuclear technology History of transport.

Categories : Industry Agricultural machinery Armoured warfare Machinery. Hidden categories: CS1 errors: missing periodical All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from December Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history.

Mechanization is used to achieve high volume, detailed organization of material flow, careful control of quality standards, and division of labor. Labor costs are often lower for mass-produced products. This cost savings is from the automated assembly line production processes requiring fewer workers.

Advantages commonly attributed to automation include higher production rates and increased productivity, more efficient use of materials, better product quality, improved safety , shorter workweeks for labour, and reduced factory lead times. Higher output and increased productivity have been two of the biggest reasons in justifying the use of automation. Despite the claims of high quality from good workmanship by humans, automated systems typically perform the manufacturing process with less variability than human workers, resulting in greater control and consistency of product quality. Also, increased process control makes more efficient use of materials, resulting in less scrap. Worker safety is an important reason for automating an industrial operation. Automated systems often remove workers from the workplace, thus safeguarding them against the hazards of the factory environment.


Industrial automation is the use of control systems, such as computers or robots, and information technologies for handling different processes and machineries in an industry to replace a human being. It is the second step beyond mechanization in the scope of industrialization. Earlier the purpose of automation was to increase productivity since automated systems can work 24 hours a day , and to reduce the cost associated with human operators i. However, today, the focus of automation has shifted to increasing quality and flexibility in a manufacturing process. In the automobile industry, the installation of pistons into the engine used to be performed manually with an error rate of Presently, this task is performed using automated machinery with an error rate of 0. Lower operating cost: Industrial automation eliminates healthcare costs and paid leave and holidays associated with a human operator.

What is Industrial Automation?

Mechanization is the process of changing from working largely or exclusively by hand or with animals to doing that work with machinery. In an early engineering text a machine is defined as follows:. Every machine is constructed for the purpose of performing certain mechanical operations, each of which supposes the existence of two other things besides the machine in question, namely, a moving power, and an object subject to the operation, which may be termed the work to be done. Machines, in fact, are interposed between the power and the work, for the purpose of adapting the one to the other.

Automation has the potential to transform future jobs and the structure of the labor force. As we discussed in the March edition of the QEB , automation in manufacturing has steadily decreased costs for decades, making US manufactures more competitive while also reducing the amount of labor required to produce them.

Our mission is to help leaders in multiple sectors develop a deeper understanding of the global economy. Our flagship business publication has been defining and informing the senior-management agenda since As automation technologies such as machine learning and robotics play an increasingly great role in everyday life, their potential effect on the workplace has, unsurprisingly, become a major focus of research and public concern. In fact, as our research has begun to show, the story is more nuanced. While automation will eliminate very few occupations entirely in the next decade, it will affect portions of almost all jobs to a greater or lesser degree, depending on the type of work they entail. Automation, now going beyond routine manufacturing activities, has the potential, as least with regard to its technical feasibility, to transform sectors such as healthcare and finance, which involve a substantial share of knowledge work. These conclusions rest on our detailed analysis of 2,plus work activities for more than occupations. The full results, forthcoming in early , will include several other countries, 1 1. Last year, we showed that currently demonstrated technologies could automate 45 percent of the activities people are paid to perform and that about 60 percent of all occupations could see 30 percent or more of their constituent activities automated, again with technologies available today. In this article, we examine the technical feasibility, using currently demonstrated technologies, of automating three groups of occupational activities: those that are highly susceptible, less susceptible, and least susceptible to automation.

Advantages and disadvantages of automation

Our mission is to help leaders in multiple sectors develop a deeper understanding of the global economy. Our flagship business publication has been defining and informing the senior-management agenda since Over the past two decades, automation in manufacturing has been transforming factory floors, the nature of manufacturing employment, and the economics of many manufacturing sectors. Today, we are on the cusp of a new automation era: rapid advances in robotics, artificial intelligence, and machine learning are enabling machines to match or outperform humans in a range of work activities, including ones requiring cognitive capabilities.

In the past 20 years, technology has changed the nature of manufacturing. In the old days, manufacturing and fabrication were all done by hand by people.

Providing a reasonable level of profitability through productivity is - and will remain - one of the fundamental tasks of the management teams of any production company. Both MCPD and MDC are the result of long-time synthesis and distillation, being implemented successfully, totally or partially, in many companies. The MCPD is a methodology that improves the production flow driven by the need for Manufacturing Cost Improvement MCI for both existing and future products through setting targets and means to continuously improve production process productivity for each product family cost. The MDC results on production methods lead to effectiveness of work measurement for performance P and to knowledge and improvement of production control and planning as utilization U , in order to achieve labor target costs. The combination of MCPD and MDC methodologies can provide a unique approach for the managers who are seeking new ways for increasing productivity and profitability to increase the competitive level of their manufacturing company. D, is a management consultant in cost improvement, productivity and quality and managing partner of Exegens Management Consultants Romania. Prior to this position, he held top management positions in manufacturing and service companies. His major research areas include manufacturing policy deployment, manufacturing cost improvement, and operational management of production. His recent research includes the manufacturing cost deployment policy to translate the strategic objective to reduce the long-term production costs to the annual activities and actions of manufacturing cost improvement, by setting targets and means for the process cost improvement. He has been actively involved in various industrial consulting and training projects for more than 18 years in Romania.

Industrial engineers should always work as engineers who know the economic point of These are easy to implement and helpful to management, no questions. without just developing mechanization, automation, and information system.

Where machines could replace humans—and where they can’t (yet)

Manufacturing Engineering it is a branch of professional engineering that shares many common concepts and ideas with other fields of engineering such as mechanical, chemical, electrical, and industrial engineering. Manufacturing engineering requires the ability to plan the practices of manufacturing; to research and to develop tools, processes, machines and equipment; and to integrate the facilities and systems for producing quality products with the optimum expenditure of capital. Manufacturing Engineering is based on core industrial engineering and mechanical engineering skills, adding important elements from mechatronics, commerce, economics and business management. This field also deals with the integration of different facilities and systems for producing quality products with optimal expenditure by applying the principles of physics and the results of manufacturing systems studies, such as the following:. Manufacturing engineers develop and create physical artifacts, production processes, and technology.


Automation , the application of machines to tasks once performed by human beings or, increasingly, to tasks that would otherwise be impossible. Although the term mechanization is often used to refer to the simple replacement of human labour by machines, automation generally implies the integration of machines into a self-governing system. Automation has revolutionized those areas in which it has been introduced, and there is scarcely an aspect of modern life that has been unaffected by it. The term automation was coined in the automobile industry about to describe the increased use of automatic devices and controls in mechanized production lines. The origin of the word is attributed to D. Harder, an engineering manager at the Ford Motor Company at the time.

What is Industrial Automation?

Innovations in the applications of cutting-edge tech are revolutionizing manufacturing to the extent that it is now known as the Fourth Industrial Revolution. The possibilities inherent in linking the capabilities of digitalization to the physical aspects of industry by capitalizing on the growing abilities of the Internet of Things IoT and other technologies has earned a name of its own, Industry 4.

Benefits of Automation

At Productivity, we know that change can often be overwhelming and frightening. Our experts are here to prove that there are a multitude of benefits when you upgrade to automation. Click here to download PDF.

- Ролдан был человек осторожный, а визит в полицию мог превратить его клиентов в бывших клиентов.  - Подумайте, - предложил .

- Разве мы не знаем, что в хиросимской бомбе был другой изотоп урана. Все вокруг недоуменно переглянулись. Соши лихорадочно прогоняла текст на мониторе в обратном направлений и наконец нашла то, что искала. - Да.

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