Healthy Cleaning This section is intended to be a valuable information resource about cleaning products for consumers, educators, students, media, government officials, businesses and others. Water, the liquid commonly used for cleaning, has a property called surface tension. In the body of the water, each molecule is surrounded and attracted by other water molecules.
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- Soap, Fatty Acids, and Synthetic Detergents
- Laundry detergent
- Solvents vs. Detergents – What’s the Difference?
- Early synthetic detergents
- Detergents and soaps
- Laundry Detergent Testing Guidelines - Minimum requirements for comparative detergent testing
- The Chemistry of Cleaning
- 11: Fats, Fatty Acids, Detergents
Soap, Fatty Acids, and Synthetic DetergentsVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Fats, Oils & Detergents-1
A detergent is a chemical compound or mixture of compounds used as a cleaning agent. A soap is a cleaning agent that is composed of one or more salts of fatty acids.
Thus, by its broad definition, detergent is an umbrella term that includes soaps and other cleaning agents with various chemical compositions. Often, however, the term detergent is used in a narrower sense to refer to synthetic cleaning agents that are not soaps that is, not salts of fatty acids. Conversely, the term soap is often used in a broader sense to include a variety of cleaning agents such as "laundry soap".
Here, the term detergent will be used in its broader sense to include soaps , and the term soap will be used for products that consist mainly of fatty acid salts.
Detergents are commonly used in products for personal hygiene, dishwashing, and laundry. They are also used as ingredients in antiseptic agents, dry-cleaning solutions, lubricating oils , and gasoline. Although detergents are very useful, the excessive use of certain ingredients has led to adverse effects on the environment.
For instance, phosphate additives used for water softeners led to an increase in phosphorus content in lakes and rivers, triggering algal blooms that in turn consumed most of the oxygen in the waters, killing fish and plants. Efforts have been made to reduce such negative effects, but the results have been mixed. The earliest known use of a natural, soap-like material was the powder of nuts from the Reeta Sapindus tree, a powder used by Indians since antiquity.
In accordance with Ayurvedic teachings, Hindus in India were obliged to bathe at least once a day, every morning. The Babylonians used clay cylinders containing a soap-like substance, dating from B. A formula for soap—consisting of water, alkali , and cassia oil —was written on a Babylonian clay tablet around B.
The Ebers papyrus Egypt, B. Egyptian documents mention that a soap-like substance was used in the preparation of wool for weaving. It has been reported that a factory producing soap-like substances was found in the ruins of Pompeii C.
However, this report appears to be a misinterpretation of the survival of some soapy mineral substance, probably soapstone, at the Fullonica where it was used for dressing recently cleansed textiles. The ancient Romans were generally ignorant of soap's detergent properties and made use of the strigil to scrape dirt and sweat from the body. The word "soap" Latin sapo appears first in a European language in Pliny the Elder's Historia Naturalis , which discusses the manufacture of soap from tallow and ashes, but the only use he mentions for it is as a pomade for hair.
He mentions rather disapprovingly that among the Gauls and Germans, men are likelier to use it than women. According to one legend, "soap" takes its name from a "Mount Sapo" where ancient Romans sacrificed animals.
Rain would send a mix of animal tallow and wood ash down the mountain and into the clay soil on the banks of the Tiber. Eventually, women noticed that it was easier to clean clothes with this "soap.
In fact, the Latin word sapo simply means "soap. Roman animal sacrifices usually burned only the bones and inedible entrails of the sacrificed animals; edible meat and fat from the sacrifices were taken by humans. Under such circumstances, animal sacrifices would not have included enough fat to make much soap.
The legend about Mount Sapo is probably apocryphal. A twelfth-century Islamic document describes the process of soap production. By the thirteenth century, the manufacture of soap in the Islamic world had become virtually industrialized, with sources in Nablus, Fes, Damascus , and Aleppo.
Soapmakers in Naples were members of a guild in the late sixth century then under the control of the Eastern Roman Empire ,  and in the eighth century, soap-making was well known in Italy and Spain. In modern times, the use of soap has become universal in industrialized nations due to a better understanding of the role of hygiene in reducing the population size of pathogenic microorganisms.
Manufactured bar soaps first became available in the late nineteenth century, and advertising campaigns in Europe and the United States helped to increase popular awareness of the relationship between cleanliness and health. By the s, soap had gained public acceptance as an instrument of personal hygiene. Until the Industrial Revolution , soap-making was done on a small scale and the product was rough. In , Andrew Pears started making a high-quality, transparent soap in London.
He and his grandson, Francis Pears, opened a factory in Isleworth in William Gossage produced low-priced, good quality soap from the s. Robert Spear Hudson began manufacturing a soap powder in , initially by grinding the soap with a mortar and pestle. William Hesketh Lever and his brother James bought a small soap works in Warrington in and founded what became one of the largest soap businesses, now called Unilever. These soap businesses were among the first to employ large-scale advertising campaigns to sell the output of their factories.
Soap usually comes in a solid, molded form, called a bar , based on its typical shape. The use of thick liquid soap has also become widespread, especially from soap dispensers in public washrooms.
When applied to a soiled surface, soapy water effectively holds particles in suspension, which can then be rinsed off with clean water. As noted above, soaps are salts of fatty acids. A molecule of soap may be represented as follows:. Thus, each molecule of soap has a an ionic end, which is hydrophilic water-attracting and soluble in water; and b a nonpolar hydrocarbon chain that is hydrophobic water-repelling that can attach to nonpolar materials such as grease and oil.
These molecules form bridges between water and oil, breaking up the oil and forming an emulsion consisting of oil droplets suspended in water. Substances made up of such molecules are called surfactants. They reduce the surface tension of water, and they reduce interfacial tension between oil and water by adsorbing at the liquid-liquid interface. Surfactants are key components of detergents in general.
Because of their presence in detergents, oil and associated dirt particles become solubilized and can be rinsed away with clean water. Many types of organic compounds can function as surfactants. They and the detergents that contain them are often classified into four groups: anionic, cationic, zwitterionic with plus and minus charges , and non-ionic.
In the case of non-ionic surfactants, the hydrophilic nature of one end is conferred by the presence of special functional groups such as hydroxyl groups. Most brands of laundry detergent have anionic or nonionic surfactants or a mixture of the two, although cationic surfactants have also been used. The use of cationic and anionic surfactants together is incompatible in the same detergent. The usual content of surfactants in a typical detergent is about percent.
In addition to surfactants, detergents various other components that serve different functions. A given detergent may contain several of the following components:. The material to be cleaned dictates the composition of the detergent that should be used and the apparatus to be used.
For instance, the following are examples of different glass-cleaning agents that are appropriate for different contexts:. Some individuals continue to make soap in the home. The traditional name "soaper," for a soap maker, is still used by those who make soap as a hobby.
Those who make their own soaps are also known as soap crafters. The most popular process for handmade soaps today is the cold process, where oils such as olive oil are reacted with lye. Some soap makers use the "melt and pour" process, where a pre-made soap base is melted and poured into individual molds.
Some soapers also practice other processes, such as the historical hot process, and make special soaps such as clear soap glycerin soap. Soap is derived from either oils or fats.
Sodium tallowate , a common ingredient in many soaps, is derived from rendered beef fat. Soap can also be made of vegetable oils, such as palm oil, and the product is typically softer.
An array of quality oils and butters are used in the process, such as olive , coconut , palm, cocoa butter, hemp oil and shea butter. Each oil chosen by the soap maker has unique characteristics that provide different qualities to handmade soaps including mildness, lathering and hardness. For example, olive oil provides mildness in soap; coconut oil provides lots of lather while coconut and palm oils provides hardness.
Most common, though, is a combination of coconut, palm, and olive oils. If soap is made from pure olive oil it may be called Castile soap or Marseille soap. The term "Castile soap" is also sometimes applied to soaps with a mix of oils, but a high percentage of olive oil. When fat or oil is reacted with lye sodium hydroxide , the product is a hard soap.
When fat is reacted with potassium hydroxide, the product is a soap that is either soft or liquid. Either reaction is known as saponification. The fat is hydrolyzed by the alkali, yielding glycerol and crude soap.
Historically, the alkali used was potassium hydroxide, made from the deliberate burning of vegetation such as bracken, or from wood ashes. After saponification, the soap is sometimes precipitated from the solution by adding salt, and the excess liquid drained off. The hot, soft soap is then spooned into a mold. The hot-process method was used when the purity of lye was unreliable, and when naturally produced lye, such as potash , was used. The main benefit of hot processing is that the exact concentration of the lye solution does not need to be known to perform the process with adequate success.
Unlike cold-processed soap, hot-processed soap can be used right away because lye and fat saponify more quickly at the higher temperatures used in hot-process soap making. In the cold-process method, fats such as olive oil are reacted with lye, at a temperature that is sufficiently above room temperature to ensure the liquefaction of the fat being used.
It requires that the lye and fat be kept warm after mixing to ensure that the soap is completely saponified. The cold process requires exact measurement of lye to fat using saponification charts, to ensure that the finished product is mild and skin friendly.
Excess unreacted lye in the soap will result in a very high pH and can burn or irritate skin. Not enough lye, and the soap is greasy and oily. Most soap makers formulate their recipes with a percent discount of lye so that all of the lye is reacted and that excess fat is left for skin conditioning benefits. Saponification charts can also be used in hot-process soap making, but are not as necessary as for the cold-process method.
The lye is dissolved in water. Then oils are heated, or melted if they are solid at room temperature. This lye-fat mixture is stirred until it reaches a stage called "trace"—the point at which the saponification process is sufficiently advanced that the soap has begun to thicken. Modern-day amateur soap makers often use a stick blender to speed this process.
What makes a cleaner work? How much chemistry is involved in removing grease from a stove top or grit from a concrete floor? The answer to these and other questions lies within words like surfactant, solvent, chelating agent and builder. Organic soils encompass a broad range and include food soils such as fat, grease, protein, and carbohydrate , living matter such as mold, yeast and bacteria and petroleum soils such as motor oil, axle grease and cutting oils.
W hen you're young, "bathtime" is another word for "torture" and a harmless block of soap can seem like an offensive weapon. Fortunately, most of us soon grow out of that little problem and learn to recognize soap and water for what they are: a perfect way to shift the daily grime. Soap seems like the simplest thing in the world. Just splash it on your face and it gets rid of the dirt, right? In fact, it's quite a cunning chemical and it works in a really interesting way. Let's take a closer look!
Solvents vs. Detergents – What’s the Difference?
We've seen that carboxylic acid derivatives react with nucleophiles to give substitution products in which the leaving group is replaced by the attacking nucleophile. This same pattern describes the first steps in the reaction of esters with lithium aluminum hydride and Grignard reagents, but in both cases the reaction proceeds further because the first product formed also reacts with the reagent. For an example, lets look at the reduction of an ester with lithium aluminum hydride. When the "hydride ion" H: - from lithium aluminum hydride replaces the OR' group of the ester, an aldehyde is formed. We've already seen that and aldehyde is reduced by lithium aluminum hydride, so it comes as no surprise that the aldehyde is immediately reduced to a primary alcohol. In fact, the aldehyde is more electrophilic than the ester, so as soon as a few molecules of aldehyde are formed, they are attacked by the hydride in preference to the ester.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Detection of Adulteration in Milk - Amrita University
Soap has been around long before the need to whiten whites became a thing. Detergents that we know today that brighten and clean have been used around the home for just over years. You can make your own soap or detergent at home for a nontoxic and effective cleaning agent. Both soaps and detergents contain surfactants , also called surface active agents. These are compounds that have molecules that surround water molecules to break the surface tension of each and every drop of clean water. This allows the detergent to adhere to the fabric or surface you are trying to clean and mix with grease and water to wipe away grime. The surfactants contain a combination of triglycerides , or fats, and alkalis.
Early synthetic detergents
Need to remove tomato sauce, grease, ink, or other tricky spots? Get rid of your toughest stains using our stain guide. The ingredients in your cleaning products fall into several different categories, added to provide different characteristics and cleaning functions. Search CPISI for safety assessment data from publicly available data sources on ingredients used in cleaning products.
Riegel's Handbook of Industrial Chemistry pp Cite as. The mixture of fat and wood ashes that reacted to form soap was carried by rain to the banks of the Tiber River and was found as a clay deposit useful for cleaning clothes. The boiling of fats with ashes was recorded as early as B. Commercial soap-making was a widespread art in the Middle Ages in Europe. The invention of the soda ash process by LeBlanc in , and the discovery by Chevreul in that soap was composed of a mixture of fatty acids paved the way to modern soap-manufacturing processess. Skip to main content. Advertisement Hide. Soap, Fatty Acids, and Synthetic Detergents. Reference work entry First Online: 26 August These fatty acids are generally a mixture of saturated, unsaturated, and polyunsaturated moieties: Open image in new window.
Detergents and soaps
Laundry detergent , or washing powder , is a type of detergent cleaning agent used for cleaning laundry. Laundry detergent is manufactured in powder and liquid form. While powdered and liquid detergents hold roughly equal share of the worldwide laundry detergent market in terms of value, powdered detergents are sold twice as much compared to liquids in terms of volume. From ancient times, chemical additives were used to facilitate the mechanical washing of textile fibres with water. The earliest recorded evidence of the production of soap-like materials dates back to around BC in ancient Babylon. Such detergents were mainly used in industry until after World War II. By then, new developments and the later conversion of aviation fuel plants to produce tetrapropylene , used in household detergents, caused a fast growth of domestic use in the late s. Washing laundry involves removing mixed soils from fiber surfaces. From a chemical viewpoint, soils can be grouped into:. Soils difficult to remove are pigments and dyes , fats , resins , tar , waxes , and denatured protein.
Laundry Detergent Testing Guidelines - Minimum requirements for comparative detergent testing
The Chemistry of Cleaning
The first soaps were manufactured in ancient times through a variety of methods, most commonly by boiling fats and ashes. Archeologists excavating sites in ancient Babylon have found evidence indicating that such soaps were used as far back as B.
11: Fats, Fatty Acids, Detergents
If turkey-red oil—i. The first synthetic detergents for general use, however, were produced by the Germans in the World War I period so that available fats could be utilized for other purposes.
После бесчисленных проверок на контрольно-пропускных пунктах он получил шестичасовой гостевой пропуск с голографическим текстом и был препровожден в роскошное помещение, где ему, как было сказано, предстояло вслепую оказать помощь Отделению криптографии - элитарной группе талантливых математиков, именуемых дешифровщиками.
В течение первого часа они, казалось, даже не замечали его присутствия. Обступив громадный стол, они говорили на языке, которого Беккеру прежде никогда не доводилось слышать, - о поточных шифрах, самоуничтожающихся генераторах, ранцевых вариантах, протоколах нулевого понимания, точках единственности.
Беккер наблюдал за ними, чувствуя себя здесь лишним.
Немец не ожидал такого оборота. - Wasmachst… - Помолчите! - Беккер перешел на английский. - У вас в номере проститутка? - Он оглядел комнату.